European Union Private Debt: % of Nominal GDP

1997 - 2023 | Quarterly | % | CEIC Data

Key information about European Union Private Debt: % of Nominal GDP

  • European Union Private Debt accounted for 83.13 % of its Nominal GDP in Sep 2023, compared with a ratio of 84.60 % in the previous quarter
  • EU Private Debt contribution to Nominal GDP ratio is updated quarterly, available from Sep 1997 to Sep 2023, with an average share of 90.05 %
  • The data reached an all-time high of 105.01 % in Jun 2010 and a record low of 74.30 % in Sep 1997

CEIC calculates quarterly Private Debt as % of Nominal GDP from quarterly Private Debt and quarterly Nominal GDP. Private Debt is calculated as the sum of Loans to Non Financial Sector and Households. European Central Bank provides Private Debt in EUR. Eurostat provides Nominal GDP in EUR.

View European Union's Private Debt: % of Nominal GDP from Sep 1997 to Sep 2023 in the chart:

European Union Private Debt: % of Nominal GDP

What was European Union's Private Debt: % of Nominal GDP in Sep 2023?

European Union Private Debt accounted for 83.13 % of its Nominal GDP in Sep 2023, compared with a ratio of 84.60 % in the previous quarter See the table below for more data.

Last Previous Min Max Unit Frequency Range
83.13 Sep 2023 84.60 Jun 2023 74.30 Sep 1997 105.01 Jun 2010 % quarterly Sep 1997 - Sep 2023

Private Debt: % of Nominal GDP by Country Comparison

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Includes Private Debt: % of Nominal GDP on 115 economies standardised by CEIC. Instant access to full history data in excel.
country/region Last Frequency Range
Albania (%) 30.27 Jun 2023 quarterly Dec 2008 - Jun 2023
Algeria (%) 20.82 Dec 2022 quarterly Jun 2006 - Dec 2022
Argentina (%) 11.86 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2004 - Sep 2023
Armenia (%) 45.52 Jun 2023 quarterly Dec 2000 - Jun 2023
Australia (%) 125.60 Jun 2023 quarterly Mar 1990 - Jun 2023
Austria (%) 91.71 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 1998 - Sep 2023
Azerbaijan (%) 20.77 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2001 - Sep 2023
Bahrain (%) 66.77 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 2008 - Sep 2023
Bangladesh (%) 33.49 2023 yearly 1974 - 2023
Belarus (%) 20.73 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2006 - Sep 2023
Belgium (%) 69.47 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 1999 - Sep 2023
Bolivia (%) 68.12 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 1997 - Sep 2023
Bosnia and Herzegovina (%) 43.80 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2008 - Sep 2023
Botswana (%) 27.73 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2002 - Sep 2023
Brazil (%) 51.13 Dec 2023 quarterly Mar 2012 - Dec 2023
Brunei (%) 28.47 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2013 - Sep 2023
Bulgaria (%) 48.74 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2005 - Sep 2023
Cambodia (%) 151.50 2022 yearly 2008 - 2022
Canada (%) 218.71 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 1969 - Sep 2023
Chile (%) 75.57 Sep 2023 quarterly Sep 2012 - Sep 2023
China (%) 194.99 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 1992 - Sep 2023
Colombia (%) 43.28 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2005 - Sep 2023
Croatia (%) 50.00 Jun 2023 quarterly Dec 2008 - Jun 2023
Cyprus (%) 69.82 Jun 2023 quarterly Dec 2005 - Jun 2023
Czech Republic (%) 49.23 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 1997 - Sep 2023
Denmark (%) 27.87 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2013 - Sep 2023
Ecuador (%) 53.01 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 2004 - Sep 2023
Egypt (%) 26.75 Jun 2023 quarterly Jun 2002 - Jun 2023
Estonia (%) 58.01 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 1997 - Sep 2023
European Union (%) 83.13 Sep 2023 quarterly Sep 1997 - Sep 2023
Finland (%) 89.82 Sep 2023 quarterly Sep 1997 - Sep 2023
France (%) 109.78 Dec 2023 quarterly Mar 1980 - Dec 2023
Georgia (%) 61.26 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 1996 - Sep 2023
Germany (%) 78.28 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 1991 - Sep 2023
Ghana (%) 9.23 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2013 - Sep 2023
Greece (%) 52.77 Jun 2023 quarterly Mar 2001 - Jun 2023
Hong Kong SAR, China (%) 224.68 Mar 2023 quarterly Dec 1973 - Mar 2023
Hungary (%) 56.66 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2015 - Sep 2023
Iceland (%) 92.19 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 1995 - Sep 2023
India (%) 51.79 Mar 2022 quarterly Mar 1997 - Mar 2022
Indonesia (%) 30.06 Dec 2023 quarterly Mar 2002 - Dec 2023
Iran (%) 60.30 2016 yearly 1961 - 2016
Ireland (%) 25.75 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 2003 - Sep 2023
Israel (%) 110.64 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 1995 - Sep 2023
Italy (%) 63.89 Sep 2023 quarterly Jun 1998 - Sep 2023
Ivory Coast (%) 21.10 2022 yearly 2016 - 2022
Japan (%) 120.95 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2001 - Sep 2023
Jordan (%) 82.20 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 2002 - Sep 2023
Kazakhstan (%) 24.32 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 1996 - Sep 2023
Kenya (%) 30.13 Dec 2022 quarterly Dec 2009 - Dec 2022
South Korea (%) 176.84 Jun 2023 quarterly Mar 1991 - Jun 2023
Kosovo (%) 50.80 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2010 - Sep 2023
Kuwait (%) 100.05 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2010 - Sep 2023
Kyrgyzstan (%) 21.22 Dec 2023 quarterly Dec 2003 - Dec 2023
Laos (%) 54.41 2022 yearly 2012 - 2022
Latvia (%) 25.68 Jun 2023 quarterly Sep 2003 - Jun 2023
Lebanon (%) 102.16 2017 yearly 1988 - 2017
Lithuania (%) 35.01 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 2004 - Sep 2023
Luxembourg (%) 95.99 Mar 2023 quarterly Mar 1999 - Mar 2023
Macau SAR, China (%) 181.23 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2001 - Sep 2023
North Macedonia (%) 51.20 Jun 2023 quarterly Mar 2009 - Jun 2023
Malawi (%) 8.35 2022 yearly 2017 - 2022
Malaysia (%) 115.89 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2001 - Sep 2023
Malta (%) 68.58 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2003 - Sep 2023
Mauritius (%) 60.60 Jun 2023 quarterly Dec 2018 - Jun 2023
Mexico (%) 19.48 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 2004 - Sep 2023
Moldova (%) 21.41 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 2000 - Sep 2023
Mongolia (%) 39.66 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2010 - Sep 2023
Montenegro (%) 43.36 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2010 - Sep 2023
Morocco (%) 60.11 Jun 2023 quarterly Dec 2007 - Jun 2023
Mozambique (%) 20.19 2022 yearly 2001 - 2022
Myanmar (%) 28.98 2020 yearly 1960 - 2020
Nepal (%) 74.47 2023 yearly 2003 - 2023
Netherlands (%) 85.46 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 1995 - Sep 2023
New Zealand (%) 138.97 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 1988 - Sep 2023
Nigeria (%) 12.80 Mar 2023 quarterly Dec 2010 - Mar 2023
Norway (%) 118.19 Dec 2023 quarterly Mar 1996 - Dec 2023
Oman (%) 48.03 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2005 - Sep 2023
Pakistan (%) 9.41 2023 yearly 2005 - 2023
Palestinian Territory (%) 48.59 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2013 - Sep 2023
Panama (%) 69.44 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2007 - Sep 2023
Paraguay (%) 40.91 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 1994 - Sep 2023
Peru (%) 36.35 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 1992 - Sep 2023
Philippines (%) 48.11 Dec 2023 quarterly Dec 2001 - Dec 2023
Poland (%) 34.98 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2009 - Sep 2023
Portugal (%) 77.32 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 1995 - Sep 2023
Qatar (%) 101.37 Jun 2023 quarterly Dec 2011 - Jun 2023
Romania (%) 23.47 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 2007 - Sep 2023
Russia (%) 57.84 Sep 2023 quarterly Sep 2002 - Sep 2023
Saudi Arabia (%) 58.31 Jun 2023 quarterly Dec 2003 - Jun 2023
Serbia (%) 38.81 Mar 2023 quarterly Mar 2004 - Mar 2023
Singapore (%) 135.33 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 2004 - Sep 2023
Slovakia (%) 64.65 Jun 2023 quarterly Mar 2009 - Jun 2023
Slovenia (%) 38.31 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 2004 - Sep 2023
South Africa (%) 67.20 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 1965 - Sep 2023
Spain (%) 77.68 Dec 2023 quarterly Mar 2003 - Dec 2023
Sri Lanka (%) 26.18 Jun 2023 quarterly Dec 2010 - Jun 2023
Sudan (%) 5.64 2022 yearly 1960 - 2022
Sweden (%) 128.72 Jun 2023 quarterly Dec 1991 - Jun 2023
Switzerland (%) 167.99 Jun 2023 quarterly Dec 1996 - Jun 2023

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European Union Key Series

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Government and Public Finance Last Frequency Range
Consolidated Fiscal Balance: % of GDP (%) -3.3 2022 yearly 1995 - 2022
Consolidated Fiscal Balance (USD mn) -557,108.624 2022 yearly 1999 - 2022
Tax Revenue (USD mn) 4,471,962.022 2022 yearly 1999 - 2022
Tax Revenue: % of GDP (%) 26.7 2022 yearly 1995 - 2022
National Government Debt (USD mn) 14,589,252.7 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 2000 - Sep 2023
Government Debt: % of GDP (%) 82.6 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 2000 - Sep 2023
BE: General Government Debt: % of GDP (%) 104.300 2022 yearly 1995 - 2022
General Govt: Expenditure: EA 19 (EUR mn) 6,781,895.400 2022 yearly 1995 - 2022
General Govt: Balance: EA 19 (EUR mn) -486,532.400 2022 yearly 1995 - 2022
General Govt: Revenue: EA 19 (EUR mn) 6,296,072.800 2022 yearly 1995 - 2022
General Govt: Revenue: EA 19: Current Taxes on Income Wealth and Etc (EUR mn) 1,503,285.600 2018 yearly 1995 - 2018
General Govt: Revenue: EA 19: Production and Import Tax (EUR mn) 1,504,935.500 2018 yearly 1995 - 2018
General Govt: Expenditure: EU 28: Current Taxes on Income Wealth (EUR mn) 3,875.300 2018 yearly 2001 - 2018
General Govt: Revenue: EU 28: Production and Import Tax (EUR mn) 2,129,883.400 2018 yearly 2001 - 2018
General Govt: Expenditure: EA 19: Capital Transfer (EUR mn) 123,173.500 2018 yearly 1995 - 2018
General Govt: Expenditure: EU 28: Capital Transfer (EUR mn) 158,376.700 2018 yearly 2001 - 2018
General Govt: Expenditure: EU 27E: Total (EUR mn) 7,893,694.300 2022 yearly 1995 - 2022
General Govt: Expenditure: EU 27E: Capital Transfer (EUR mn) 295,190.800 2022 yearly 1995 - 2022
General Govt: Expenditure: EU 27E: Cur Taxes on Income Wealth & Etc (EUR mn) 7,148.800 2022 yearly 1995 - 2022
General Govt: Revenue: EU 27E: Total (EUR mn) 7,363,890.400 2022 yearly 1995 - 2022
General Govt: Revenue: EU 27E: Production and Import Tax (EUR mn) 2,115,857.300 2022 yearly 1995 - 2022
General Govt: Balance: EU 27 excl UK (EU 27E) (EUR mn) -531,377.500 2022 yearly 1995 - 2022
General Govt: Balance: EA 20 (EUR mn) -486,456.700 2022 yearly 1995 - 2022
General Govt: Revenue: EA 20: Production and Import Tax (EUR mn) 1,745,756.200 2022 yearly 1995 - 2022
General Govt: Expenditure: EA 20: Capital Transfer (EUR mn) 265,903.800 2022 yearly 1995 - 2022
General Govt: Revenue: EA 20 (EUR mn) 6,326,683.700 2022 yearly 1995 - 2022
General Govt: Expenditure: EA 20 (EUR mn) 6,812,430.600 2022 yearly 1995 - 2022
SSC: Balance: EU 27 excl UK (EU 27E) (EUR mn) 41,509.300 2022 yearly 1995 - 2022
SSC: Balance: EA 20 (EUR mn) 40,194.900 2022 yearly 1995 - 2022
Gross Debt: General Government: EU 27 excl UK (EUR mn) 13,784,252.300 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 2000 - Sep 2023
Gross Debt: General Govt: SFD: Long Term: EU 27 excl UK (EUR mn) 10,184,941.700 2022 yearly 2000 - 2022
Gross Debt: General Govt: SFD: Short Term: EU 27 excl UK (EUR mn) 689,680.000 2022 yearly 2000 - 2022
General Government Debt: % of GDP: EU 27 excl UK (%) 83.500 2022 yearly 2000 - 2022
Foreign Trade Last Frequency Range
Trade Balance (USD mn) 10,225.7 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
Total Exports (USD mn) 229,724.2 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Total Exports Growth (%) -5.7 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2003 - Nov 2023
Total Imports (USD mn) 214,537.4 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Total Imports Growth (%) -20.4 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2003 - Nov 2023
Total Exports to USA (USD mn) 48,019.807 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Total Imports from USA (USD mn) 30,558.157 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Total Exports to China (USD mn) 19,621.338 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Total Imports from China (USD mn) 44,020.239 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
AT: Exports Volume Index: swda (2015=100) 106.900 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2000 - Oct 2023
AT: Imports Volume Index: swda (2015=100) 93.700 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2000 - Oct 2023
BE: Trade Balance: swda (EUR mn) 3,172.000 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 1999 - Nov 2023
Trade Balance: EA 19 (EUR bn) 22.51 Jun 2018 monthly Jan 1999 - Jun 2018
Exports: EA 19: Machinery and Transport Equipment (EUR bn) 75.377 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 1999 - Feb 2019
Exports: EA 19: Other Manufactured Products (EUR bn) 44.525 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 1999 - Feb 2019
Exports: EA 19: Chemicals & Related Products, nes (EUR bn) 34.092 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 1999 - Feb 2019
Exports: EA 19: Crude Materials, Inedible Except Fuels (EUR bn) 4.222 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 1999 - Feb 2019
Exports: EA 19: Food, Drink and Tobacco (EUR bn) 13.662 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 1999 - Feb 2019
Imports: EA 19: Machinery and Transport Equipment (EUR bn) 56.766 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 1999 - Feb 2019
Imports: EA 19: Other Manufactured Products (EUR bn) 43.113 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 1999 - Feb 2019
Imports: EA 19: Chemicals & Related Products, nes (EUR bn) 20.204 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 1999 - Feb 2019
Imports: EA 19: Crude Materials, Inedible Except Fuels (EUR bn) 6.096 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 1999 - Feb 2019
Imports: EA 19: Food, Drink and Tobacco (EUR bn) 10.865 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 1999 - Feb 2019
Exports: EU 28: MP: OP: MG: Iron & Steel (EUR bn) 2.838 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 2000 - Feb 2019
Exports: EU 28: MP: CR: Medicinal & Pharmaceutical (EUR bn) 14.257 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 2000 - Feb 2019
Imports: EU 28: MP: OP: MG: Iron & Steel (EUR bn) 3.146 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 2000 - Feb 2019
Imports: EU 28: MP: CR: Medicinal & Pharmaceutical (EUR bn) 7.177 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 2000 - Feb 2019
Exports: EU 27E: MP: OP: MG: Iron & Steel (EUR bn) 3.373 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 1999 - Oct 2023
Exports: EU 27E: CR: Medicinal & Pharmaceutical (EUR bn) 24.556 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 1999 - Oct 2023
Imports: EU 27E: MP: OP: MG: Iron & Steel (EUR bn) 4.582 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 1999 - Oct 2023
Imports: EU 27E: CR: Medicinal & Pharmaceutical (EUR bn) 9.913 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 1999 - Oct 2023
Exports: EU 27E: MP: Machinery & Transport Equipment (MT) (EUR bn) 91.129 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
Exports: EU 27E: MP: Other Manufactured Products (OP) (EUR bn) 48.203 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: EU 27E: MP: Chemicals & Related Products, nes (CR) (EUR bn) 44.773 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: EU 27E: RM: Crude Materials, Inedible except Fuels (CI) (EUR bn) 5.022 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: EU 27E: Food, Drink & Tobacco (FT) (EUR bn) 18.080 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
Imports: EU 27E: MP: Machinery & Transport Equipment (MT) (EUR bn) 70.072 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
Imports: EU 27E: MP: Other Manufactured Products (OP) (EUR bn) 47.746 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
Imports: EU 27E: MP: Chemicals & Related Products, nes (CR) (EUR bn) 26.314 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
Imports: EU 27E: RM: Crude Materials, Inedible except Fuels (CI) (EUR bn) 6.358 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Imports: EU 27E: Food, Drink and Tobacco (FT) (FT) (EUR bn) 12.134 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Trade Balance: EU 27E (EUR bn) 19.238 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: EU 27E (EUR bn) 225.548 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Imports: EU 27 excl UK (EU 27E) (EUR bn) 206.310 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Imports: EA 20: MP: OP: Machinery & Transport Equipment (EUR bn) 82.383 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: EA 20: Food, Drink & Tobacco (FT) (EUR bn) 20.241 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: EA 20: MP: Other Manufactured Products (OP) (EUR bn) 56.358 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: EA 20: MP: OP: Machinery & Transport Equipment (EUR bn) 102.725 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: swda: EA 19: Machinery and Transport Equipment (EUR bn) 80.203 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 1999 - Feb 2019
Exports: swda: EA 19: Other Manufactured Products (EUR bn) 46.325 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 1999 - Feb 2019
Exports: swda: EA 19: Chemicals & Related Products, nes (EUR bn) 35.365 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 1999 - Feb 2019
Exports: swda: EA 19: Crude Materials, Inedible Except Fuels (EUR bn) 4.127 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 1999 - Feb 2019
Exports: swda: EA 19: Food, Drink and Tobacco (EUR bn) 14.629 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 1999 - Feb 2019
Imports: swda: EA 19: Machinery and Transport Equipment (EUR bn) 60.256 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 1999 - Feb 2019
Imports: swda: EA 19: Other Manufactured Products (EUR bn) 44.118 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 1999 - Feb 2019
Imports: swda: EA 19: Chemicals & Related Products, nes (EUR bn) 20.402 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 1999 - Feb 2019
Imports: swda: EA 19: Crude Materials, Inedible Except Fuels (EUR bn) 6.423 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 1999 - Feb 2019
Imports: swda: EA 19: Food, Drink and Tobacco (EUR bn) 11.856 Feb 2019 monthly Jan 1999 - Feb 2019
Exports: swda: EU 27E: MP: Machinery & Transport Equipment (MT) (EUR bn) 85.986 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: swda: EU 27E: MP: Other Manufactured Products (OP) (EUR bn) 45.333 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: swda: EU 27E: MP: Chemicals & Related Products, nes (CR) (EUR bn) 42.615 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
Exports: swda: EU 27E: RM: Crude Materials, Inedible ex Fuels (CI) (EUR bn) 4.871 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: swda: EU 27E: Food, Drink & Tobacco (FT) (EUR bn) 16.557 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
Imports: swda: EU 27E: MP: Machinery & Transport Equipment (MT) (EUR bn) 62.135 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Imports: swda: EU 27E: MP: Other Manufactured Products (OP) (EUR bn) 44.116 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
Imports: swda: EU 27E: MP: Chemicals & Related Products, nes (CR) (EUR bn) 27.321 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Imports: swda: EU 27E: RM: Crude Materials, Inedible ex Fuels (CI) (EUR bn) 6.327 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
Imports: swda: EU 27E: Food, Drink & Tobacco (FT) (EUR bn) 11.445 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Trade Balance: swda: EU 27E (EUR bn) 14.037 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: swda: EU 27E (EUR bn) 212.334 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Imports: swda: EU 27 excl UK (EU 27E) (EUR bn) 198.297 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: swda: EA 20 (EUR bn) 236.839 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Imports: swda: EA 20: Food, Drink & Tobacco (FT) (EUR bn) 14.665 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Imports: swda: EA 20: RM: Crude Materials, Inedible Except Fuels (EUR bn) 6.871 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Imports: swda: EA 20: MP: Other Manufactured Products (OP) (EUR bn) 49.865 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: swda: EA 20: Food, Drink & Tobacco (FT) (EUR bn) 18.746 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: swda: EA 20: RM: Crude Materials, Inedible Except Fuels (EUR bn) 4.816 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: swda: EA 20: MP: Other Manufactured Products (OP) (EUR bn) 52.917 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: swda: EA 20: MP: OP: Machinery & Transport Equipment (EUR bn) 96.006 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: EA 20: swda: Switzerland (EUR bn) 14.671 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Imports: EA 20: swda: Russia (EUR bn) 2.270 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Imports: EA 20: swda: China (except Hong Kong) (EUR bn) 33.679 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: EA 20: swda: Turkey (EUR bn) 7.621 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: EA 20: swda: Russia (EUR bn) 2.309 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: swda: EU 27E: China: Total (EUR bn) 18.136 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Imports: swda: EU 27E: China: Total (EUR bn) 40.688 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: EU 27E: China: Total (EUR bn) 19.145 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Imports: EU 27 excl UK (EU 27E): China: Total (EUR bn) 43.724 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: swda: EU 27E: Russia: Total (EUR bn) 2.772 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Imports: swda: EU 27E: Russia: Total (EUR bn) 3.498 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: EU 27E: Russia: Total (EUR bn) 3.213 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Imports: EU 27 excl UK (EU 27E): Russia: Total (EUR bn) 3.514 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: swda: EU 27E: Switzerland: Total (EUR bn) 15.722 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Imports: swda: EU 27E: Switzerland: Total (EUR bn) 11.759 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: EU 27E: Switzerland: Total (EUR bn) 17.285 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Imports: EU 27 excl UK (EU 27E): Switzerland: Total (EUR bn) 12.700 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: swda: EU 27E: Turkey: Total (EUR bn) 9.270 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Imports: swda: EU 27E: Turkey: Total (EUR bn) 7.875 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: EU 27E: Turkey: Total (EUR bn) 9.647 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Imports: EU 27 excl UK (EU 27E): Turkey: Total (EUR bn) 8.215 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: swda: EU 27E: United States: Total (EUR bn) 44.385 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Imports: swda: EU 27E: United States: Total (EUR bn) 28.245 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports: EU 27E: United States: Total (EUR bn) 45.139 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
Imports: EU 27 excl UK (EU 27E): United States: Total (EUR bn) 29.017 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Exports Volume Index: EU27E (2015=100) 109.000 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
Imports Volume Index: EU27E (2015=100) 116.100 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
Exports Unit Value Index: EU27E (2015=100) 133.500 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
Imports Unit Value Index: EU27E (2015=100) 136.800 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
Exports Volume Index: swda: EU27E (2015=100) 103.800 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
Imports Volume Index: swda: EU27E (2015=100) 111.300 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
EVI: EU 27E: Raw Materials (2015=100) 130.600 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
EVI: EU 27E: Machinery and Transport Equipment (2015=100) 103.300 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
EVI: EU 27E: Chemicals & Related Products, nes (2015=100) 136.500 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
EVI: EU 27E: Mineral Fuels, Lubricants (2015=100) 131.200 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
EVI: EU 27E: Food and Live Animals (2015=100) 122.600 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
IVI: EU 27E: Manufactured Products (2015=100) 120.700 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
IVI: EU 27E: Raw Materials (2015=100) 114.700 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
IVI: EU 27E: Machinery and Transport Equipment (2015=100) 126.000 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
IVI: EU 27E: Petroleum Products (2015=100) 180.700 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
IVI: EU 27E: Crude Materials, Inedible (2015=100) 115.200 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
EVI: swda: EU 27E: Raw Materials (2015=100) 127.700 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
EVI: swda: EU 27E: Machinery and Transport Equipment (2015=100) 97.900 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
EVI: swda: EU 27E: Chemicals & Related Products, nes (2015=100) 132.400 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
EVI: swda: EU 27E: Mineral Fuels, Lubricants (2015=100) 130.800 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
EVI: swda: EU 27E: Crude Materials, Inedible (2015=100) 129.900 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
IVI: swda: EU 27E: Raw Materials (2015=100) 111.800 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
IVI: swda: EU 27E: Petroleum Products (2015=100) 179.400 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
IVI: swda: EU 27E: Mineral Fuels, Lubricants (2015=100) 146.500 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
IVI: swda: EU 27E: Crude Materials, Inedible (2015=100) 112.000 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
IVI: swda: EU 27E: Beverages and Tobacco (2015=100) 109.800 Oct 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Oct 2023
Balance of Payments Last Frequency Range
Direct Investment Abroad (USD mn) 22,399.9 Nov 2023 monthly Apr 1999 - Nov 2023
Current Account Balance (USD mn) 133,289.9 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 1999 - Sep 2023
Current Account Balance: % of GDP (%) 2.9 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 1999 - Sep 2023
Foreign Direct Investment (USD mn) 25,928.8 Nov 2023 monthly Apr 1999 - Nov 2023
Foreign Direct Investment: % of GDP (%) 0.9 Mar 2023 quarterly Mar 1999 - Mar 2023
Foreign Portfolio Investment (USD mn) 121,319.157 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 1999 - Sep 2023
Foreign Portfolio Investment: % of GDP (%) 3.1 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 1999 - Sep 2023
Foreign Portfolio Investment: Equity Securities (USD mn) 30,896.9 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 1999 - Sep 2023
Foreign Portfolio Investment: Debt Securities (USD mn) 90,422.264 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 1999 - Sep 2023
External Debt (USD mn) 16,979,574.9 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 2008 - Sep 2023
External Debt: % of GDP (%) 117.4 2022 yearly 2008 - 2022
Total Debt: % of GDP (%) 729.9 2022 yearly 2001 - 2022
Net International Investment Position (USD mn) 345,730.959 Sep 2023 quarterly Mar 1999 - Sep 2023
BOP: EU27E: Current and Capital Account (EUR bn) 95.277 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Current Account: Services (EUR bn) 4.385 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Capital Account (EUR bn) -9.274 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Current Account: Primary Income (EUR bn) 28.383 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Current Account: Goods (EUR bn) 91.994 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Financial Account: Direct Investment (DI) (EUR bn) 167.086 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 2008 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: FA: Portfolio Investment (PI) (EUR bn) 123.204 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 2008 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Credit: Current Account (EUR bn) 1,050.863 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Credit: Current and Capital Account (EUR bn) 1,058.971 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Credit: Current Account: Goods (EUR bn) 569.427 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Credit: Current Account: Primary Income (EUR bn) 190.739 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Credit: Current Account: Secondary Income (EUR bn) 24.371 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Credit: Capital Account (EUR bn) 8.108 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Credit: Current Account: Services (EUR bn) 266.326 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Credit: Financial Account: Direct Investment (EUR bn) -62.153 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 2008 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Credit: FA: Portfolio Investment (EUR bn) 158.279 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 2008 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Debit: Current Account (EUR bn) 946.312 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Debit: Current and Capital Account (EUR bn) 963.694 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Debit: Current Account: Goods (EUR bn) 477.433 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Debit: Current Account: Primary Income (EUR bn) 162.355 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Debit: Current Account: Secondary Income (EUR bn) 44.582 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Debit: Capital Account (EUR bn) 17.383 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Debit: Current Account: Services (EUR bn) 261.941 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Debit: Financial Account: Direct Investment (EUR bn) -229.238 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 2008 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Debit: FA: Portfolio Investment (EUR bn) 35.075 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 2008 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Debit: FA: PI: Equity & Investment Fund (EUR bn) 95.930 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 2008 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: Debit: FA: PI: Debt Securities (EUR bn) -60.849 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 2008 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: swda: Current Account (EUR bn) 90.896 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: swda: Current Account: Goods (EUR bn) 83.445 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: swda: Current Account: Primary Income (EUR bn) 10.779 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: swda: Current Account: Secondary Income (EUR bn) -15.452 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: swda: Current Account: Services (EUR bn) 12.124 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: swda: Credit: Current Account (EUR bn) 1,029.929 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: swda: Credit: Current Account: Goods (EUR bn) 556.488 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: swda: Credit: Current Account: Primary Income (EUR bn) 187.329 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: swda: Credit: Current Account: Secondary Income (EUR bn) 24.902 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: swda: Credit: Current Account: Services (EUR bn) 261.210 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: swda: Debit: Current Account (EUR bn) 939.032 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: swda: Debit: Current Account: Goods (EUR bn) 473.043 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: swda: Debit: Current Account: Primary Income (EUR bn) 176.550 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: swda: Debit: Current Account: Secondary Income (EUR bn) 40.353 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EU27E: swda: Debit: Current Account: Services (EUR bn) 249.086 Dec 2019 quarterly Mar 1999 - Dec 2019
BOP: EA 20: CA: Credit (EUR bn) 484.899 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2013 - Nov 2023
BoP: EA 20: CA: Services: Debit (EUR bn) 99.738 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2013 - Nov 2023
BOP: EA 20: CA: Primary Income (PA) (EUR bn) -5.490 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2013 - Nov 2023
BOP: EA 20: CA: Secondary Income: Debit (EUR bn) 26.159 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2013 - Nov 2023
BOP: EA 20: Net Errors & Omissions (EUR bn) 35.774 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2013 - Nov 2023
BOP: EA 20: swda: CA: Credit (EUR bn) 474.774 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2013 - Nov 2023
BoP: EA 20: swda: CA: Services: Debit (EUR bn) 92.901 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2013 - Nov 2023
FDI: Flow: Outward: EU 27E: America: United States (EUR mn) 20,778.300 2022 yearly 2013 - 2022
FDI: Flow: Outward: EU 27E: United Kingdom (EUR mn) 62,771.100 2021 yearly 2013 - 2021
FDI: Flow: Outward: EU 27E: Netherlands (EUR mn) 42,120.600 2021 yearly 2013 - 2021
FDI: Flow: Outward: EU 27E: Luxembourg (EUR mn) 29,700.400 2022 yearly 2015 - 2022
FDI: Flow: Outward: EU 27E: Belgium (EUR mn) 6,020.800 2022 yearly 2013 - 2022
FDI: Flow: Outward: EU 27E: EU 27E (EUR mn) 121,931.500 2022 yearly 2013 - 2022
FDI: Flow: Inward: EU 27E: America: United States (EUR mn) -188,875.300 2022 yearly 2013 - 2022
FDI: Flow: Inward: EU 27E: Luxembourg (EUR mn) -16,424.600 2021 yearly 2013 - 2021
FDI: Flow: Inward: EU 27E: Germany (EUR mn) 24,190.800 2022 yearly 2013 - 2022
FDI: Flow: Inward: EU 27E: France (EUR mn) -21,792.300 2021 yearly 2013 - 2021
FDI: Flow: Inward: EU 27E: Belgium (EUR mn) -1,263.300 2022 yearly 2013 - 2022
FDI: Flow: Inward: EU 27E: EU 27E (EUR mn) 58,984.400 2022 yearly 2013 - 2022
FDI: Flow: Outward: EU 27E: Financial and Insurance Activities (EUR mn) 85,525.900 2021 yearly 2016 - 2021
FDI: Flow: Outward: EU 27E: Information and Communication (EUR mn) -47,466.700 2021 yearly 2016 - 2021
FDI: Flow: Outward: EU 27E: Wholesale and Retail Trade (EUR mn) 25,775.400 2021 yearly 2016 - 2021
FDI: Flow: Outward: EU 27E: Manufacturing (EUR mn) -25,406.000 2021 yearly 2016 - 2021
FDI: Flow: Outward: EU 27E: Mining and Quarrying (EUR mn) -2,447.300 2021 yearly 2016 - 2021
FDI: Flow: Inward: EU 27E: Administrative and Support Service Activ (EUR mn) -8,593.100 2021 yearly 2016 - 2021
FDI: Flow: Inward: EU 27E: Professional, Scientific and Tech Activ (EUR mn) 14,509.900 2021 yearly 2016 - 2021
FDI: Flow: Inward: EU 27E: Financial and Insurance Activities (EUR mn) -100,574.900 2021 yearly 2016 - 2021
FDI: Flow: Inward: EU 27E: Information and Communication (EUR mn) -38,066.900 2021 yearly 2016 - 2021
FDI: Flow: Inward: EU 27E: Wholesale and Retail Trade (EUR mn) 614.900 2021 yearly 2016 - 2021
Monetary Last Frequency Range
Non Performing Loans Ratio (%) 3.7 2017 yearly 2008 - 2017
Household Debt: % of GDP (%) 47.0 Sep 2023 quarterly Sep 1997 - Sep 2023
Money Supply M1 (USD mn) 11,469,079.398 Dec 2023 monthly Jan 1999 - Dec 2023
Money Supply M2 (USD mn) 16,742,141.218 Dec 2023 monthly Jan 1999 - Dec 2023
M2 Growth (%) -0.7 Dec 2023 monthly Jan 1981 - Dec 2023
Reserve Requirement Ratio (%) 1.0 Dec 2023 monthly Jan 1999 - Dec 2023
Foreign Exchange Reserves (USD mn) 300,984.9 Dec 2023 monthly Dec 1999 - Dec 2023
Foreign Exchange Reserves: % of GDP (%) 1.908 Sep 2023 quarterly Dec 1999 - Sep 2023
Foreign Exchange Reserves: Months of Import (NA) 1.2 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 2002 - Nov 2023
Total Deposits (USD mn) 16,743,348.474 Dec 2023 monthly Jan 1999 - Dec 2023
Total Deposits Growth (%) 0.6 Dec 2023 monthly Sep 1998 - Dec 2023
Domestic Credit (USD mn) 26,033,299.2 Nov 2023 monthly Jan 1999 - Nov 2023
Domestic Credit Growth (%) 0.4 Nov 2023 monthly Sep 1998 - Nov 2023
Household Debt (USD mn) 7,361,152.3 Dec 2023 monthly Jan 1999 - Dec 2023
Total Loans (USD mn) 19,892,405.439 Dec 2023 monthly Jan 1999 - Dec 2023
Total Loans Growth (%) 0.75 Dec 2023 monthly Sep 1998 - Dec 2023
Private Debt: % of Nominal GDP (%) 83.13 Sep 2023 quarterly Sep 1997 - Sep 2023
Money Supply M3: Outstanding (EUR bn) 16,169.619 Dec 2023 monthly Jan 1970 - Dec 2023
Money Supply M2: Outstanding (EUR bn) 15,195.612 Dec 2023 monthly Jan 1980 - Dec 2023
Money Supply M3: swda: Outstanding (EUR bn) 16,112.378 Dec 2023 monthly Jan 1980 - Dec 2023
Money Supply M2: swda: Outstanding (EUR bn) 15,134.823 Dec 2023 monthly Jan 1980 - Dec 2023
Money Supply M1: Outstanding (EUR bn) 10,443.706 Dec 2023 monthly Jan 1970 - Dec 2023
Money Supply M1: swda: Outstanding (EUR bn) 10,367.998 Dec 2023 monthly Jan 1980 - Dec 2023
Eurosystem: ORA: Foreign Currency Reserves (FCR) (EUR bn) 271.937 Dec 2023 monthly Nov 1999 - Dec 2023
Eurosystem: Official Reserve Assets (ORA) (EUR bn) 1,147.672 Dec 2023 monthly Nov 1999 - Dec 2023
MFIs Loans: Outstanding: Non Financial Sector (EUR bn) 5,113.699 Dec 2023 monthly Sep 1997 - Dec 2023
MFIs Loans: Outstanding: Households: HP: Over 5 Years (EUR bn) 4,296.809 Jan 2019 monthly Sep 1997 - Jan 2019
MFIs Loans: Outstanding: Households: Consumer Credit (CS) (EUR bn) 686.042 Jan 2019 monthly Sep 1997 - Jan 2019
MFIs Deposits: Outstanding: Non Financial Corp (NFC) (EUR bn) 3,529.364 Dec 2023 monthly Sep 1997 - Dec 2023
MFIs Deposits: Outstanding: Households (EUR bn) 9,167.265 Dec 2023 monthly Sep 1997 - Dec 2023
Business and Economic Survey Last Frequency Range
Business Confidence Growth (% Point) -8.5 Jan 2024 monthly Jan 1986 - Jan 2024
BE: Industrial Confidence Indicator (ICI): sa: NACE 2 (% Point) -20.900 Jan 2024 monthly Jan 1985 - Jan 2024
Construction Confidence Indicator (CCI): sa: EU 27 excl UK (EU 27E) (% Point) -15.900 Apr 2020 monthly Jan 1985 - Apr 2020
Business Climate Indicator: sa: Euro Area 20 (NA) -0.400 Jan 2024 monthly Jan 1985 - Jan 2024
Economic Sentiment Index: sa: EU 27 excl UK (NA) 65.800 Apr 2020 monthly Jan 1985 - Apr 2020
Industrial Confidence Indicator (ICI): sa: EA 19 (% Point) 5.80 Jul 2018 monthly Jan 1985 - Jul 2018
Industrial Confidence Indicator (ICI): sa: EU 27 excl UK (EU 27E) (% Point) -30.600 Apr 2020 monthly Jan 1985 - Apr 2020
Service Confidence Indicator (SCI): sa: Euro Area 19 (% Point) 15.30 Jul 2018 monthly Jan 1996 - Jul 2018
Service Confidence Indicator (SCI): sa: EU 27 excl UK (EU 27E) (% Point) -35.400 Apr 2020 monthly Oct 1996 - Apr 2020

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