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Turkey Domestic Credit Growth

1987 - 2018 | Monthly | % | CEIC Data

Turkey's Domestic Credit increased 29.8 % YoY in Sep 2018, compared with an increase of 34.7 % YoY in the previous month. Turkey's Domestic Credit Growth YoY data is updated monthly. It averaged 35.9 %, available from Jan 1987 to Sep 2018. The data reached an all-time high of 153.6 % in Oct 1996 and a record low of 7.6 % in May 2007. CEIC calculates Domestic Credit Growth from monthly Domestic Credit. The Central Bank of the Republic of Turkey provides Domestic Credit in local currency.

In the latest reports, Turkey's Domestic Credit reached 444.3 USD bn in Sep 2018. Money Supply M2 in Turkey increased 29.3 % YoY in Sep 2018. Turkey's Foreign Exchange Reserves was measured at 65.5 USD bn in Sep 2018. The Foreign Exchange Reserves equaled 4.0 Months of Import in Sep 2018. The country's Non Performing Loans Ratio stood at 3.2 % in Sep 2018, compared with the ratio of 2.9 % in the previous month.

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What was Turkey's Domestic Credit Growth in Aug 2018?

Last

34.7

Aug 2018
Previous

23.4

Jul 2018
Min

7.6

May 2007
Max

153.6

Oct 1996
Unit

%

Frequency

monthly

Range

Jan 1987 - Aug 2018

Updated on 03 Oct 2018
Last Previous Min Max Unit Frequency Range

34.7

Aug 2018

23.4

Jul 2018

7.6

May 2007

153.6

Oct 1996

%

monthly

Jan 1987 - Aug 2018

Updated on 03 Oct 2018

View Turkey's Domestic Credit Growth from Jan 1987 to Aug 2018 in the chart:

Turkey Domestic Credit Growth

Series Details
Series ID

262193503

Name

Turkey Domestic Credit Growth

Country

Turkey

Frequency

Monthly

Unit

%

Status

Active

Source

CEIC Data

First Date

Jan 1987

Last Date

Aug 2018

Last Updated

03 Oct 2018

Statistics
Mean

49.8

Variance

1,289.6

Standard deviation

35.9

Skewness

0.8

Kurtosis

-0.4

Coefficient variation

0.7

Median

37.2

Max
Oct 1996

153.6

Min
May 2007

7.6

Previous observation
Jul 2018

23.4

Last observation
Aug 2018

34.7

Number of Observations

380

Get This Data

More Countries/Regions for Domestic Credit Growth

Country/Region Last Previous Min Max Unit Frequency Range
Albania

-1.4

Aug 2018

-1.2

Jul 2018

-8.5

Jun 2016

28.6

Oct 2008

%

monthly

Dec 2003 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-24
Argentina

33.2

Apr 2018

35.4

Mar 2018

-10.0

Sep 2003

638.4

Feb 1985

%

monthly

Dec 1965 - Apr 2018

Updated on 2018-06-25
Armenia

20.9

May 2018

17.9

Apr 2018

-13.5

Nov 2003

117.0

Jun 2008

%

monthly

Dec 2002 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-18
Australia

3.8

May 2018

3.9

Apr 2018

0.2

Nov 2009

35.0

Dec 2007

%

monthly

Dec 2002 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-09
Austria

2.5

May 2018

1.8

Apr 2018

-3.0

Jun 2015

12.6

Apr 2006

%

monthly

Jan 2000 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-16
Azerbaijan

-14.6

Aug 2018

-13.4

Jul 2018

-20.4

Oct 2017

148.4

May 2007

%

monthly

Dec 2002 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-15
Bahrain

4.4

May 2018

5.9

Apr 2018

-2.1

Sep 2017

99.1

Apr 1998

%

monthly

Dec 1997 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-02
Bangladesh

13.2

Aug 2018

14.4

Jul 2018

1.9

Apr 1993

36.8

Apr 1996

%

monthly

Jul 1988 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-17
Belarus

8.4

Sep 2018

5.7

Aug 2018

-13.5

Feb 2017

97.8

May 2011

%

monthly

Dec 2007 - Sep 2018

Updated on 2018-10-12
Belgium

-7.0

May 2018

-8.0

Apr 2018

-11.8

Sep 2017

44.8

Mar 2015

%

monthly

Jan 2000 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-17
Bolivia

18.7

Mar 2018

12.5

Feb 2018

-10.0

Sep 2006

31.1

Sep 2016

%

monthly

Dec 2002 - Mar 2018

Updated on 2018-06-28
Bosnia and Herzegovina

3.0

May 2018

2.9

Apr 2018

-32.9

Sep 1998

42.7

Jun 2008

%

monthly

Aug 1998 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-04
Brazil

2.1

May 2018

4.5

Apr 2018

2.0

Feb 2018

22.0

Nov 2007

%

monthly

Dec 2005 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-06-29
Brunei

-19.6

Mar 2018

-14.0

Feb 2018

-67.4

Jan 2009

363.2

Jan 2010

%

monthly

Dec 2002 - Mar 2018

Updated on 2018-06-14
Bulgaria

8.1

Aug 2018

8.1

Jul 2018

-41.8

Feb 1998

801.0

Feb 1997

%

monthly

Dec 1996 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-05
Cambodia

19.5

Apr 2018

18.4

Mar 2018

-13.5

May 2002

108.1

Jun 2008

%

monthly

Dec 1996 - Apr 2018

Updated on 2018-07-25
Canada

5.8

May 2018

6.0

Apr 2018

1.4

Jul 1983

19.5

Aug 1981

%

monthly

Jan 1970 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-09
Chile

7.2

Mar 2018

7.0

Feb 2018

-2.5

Nov 2009

23.5

Nov 2007

%

monthly

Dec 1998 - Mar 2018

Updated on 2018-06-29
China

10.1

Jun 2018

10.8

May 2018

7.8

May 2005

45.9

Dec 1993

%

monthly

Dec 1986 - Jun 2018

Updated on 2018-07-19
Colombia

6.8

Jul 2018

6.8

Jun 2018

-7.6

Sep 2003

58.3

Feb 1996

%

monthly

Jan 1994 - Jul 2018

Updated on 2018-10-24
Croatia

-1.6

Aug 2018

-2.0

Jul 2018

-7.6

Mar 2000

29.1

Dec 2002

%

monthly

Jun 1995 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-29
Cyprus

-13.9

Aug 2018

-14.5

Jul 2018

-14.5

Jul 2018

32.2

Oct 2008

%

monthly

Nov 2006 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-15
Czech Republic

10.6

Aug 2018

9.0

Jul 2018

-4.9

Jul 2017

23.5

Sep 2007

%

monthly

Jan 2003 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-24
Denmark

0.0

May 2018

-0.7

Apr 2018

-10.5

Aug 2013

19.2

Oct 2008

%

monthly

Dec 2002 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-23
Ecuador

15.6

Jun 2018

10.0

May 2018

-6.8

Apr 2008

59.8

Nov 2010

%

monthly

Jan 2007 - Jun 2018

Updated on 2018-07-17
Egypt

9.2

May 2018

5.4

Apr 2018

3.7

Jan 2018

42.9

Jan 2017

%

monthly

Jan 1997 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-06-29
Estonia

3.8

May 2018

3.9

Apr 2018

-6.8

Dec 2009

131.5

Jan 1997

%

monthly

Jun 1993 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-17
European Union

1.1

Aug 2018

1.3

Jul 2018

-6.2

Dec 2013

15.0

Oct 2007

%

monthly

Sep 1998 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-16
Finland

3.3

May 2018

2.4

Apr 2018

-32.7

May 2013

60.2

May 2012

%

monthly

Jan 2000 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-17
France

4.7

May 2018

4.2

Apr 2018

-6.5

Nov 2009

31.9

Oct 2007

%

monthly

Jan 2000 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-17
Georgia

22.3

Aug 2018

19.6

Jul 2018

-6.6

Nov 2009

112.9

Jun 1997

%

monthly

Oct 1996 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-15
Germany

0.0

May 2018

-0.3

Apr 2018

-13.2

Aug 2013

38.8

Sep 2011

%

monthly

Jan 2000 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-16
Greece

-16.5

Aug 2018

-10.7

Jul 2018

-19.2

Feb 2013

28.1

Aug 2010

%

monthly

Jan 2002 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-18
Hong Kong

20.1

Apr 2018

14.4

Mar 2018

-18.2

Jun 1999

44.8

Mar 2010

%

monthly

Dec 1991 - Apr 2018

Updated on 2018-07-18
Hungary

10.9

Aug 2018

11.1

Jul 2018

-12.3

Nov 2012

25.6

Aug 2006

%

monthly

Jan 1999 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-05
Iceland

5.0

Jun 2018

4.0

May 2018

-58.8

Sep 2009

56.1

Sep 2008

%

monthly

Sep 1994 - Jun 2018

Updated on 2018-07-23
India

11.7

Aug 2018

10.2

Jul 2018

5.6

Nov 2017

27.1

Jul 2009

%

monthly

Mar 2000 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-24
Indonesia

8.6

May 2018

9.7

Apr 2018

3.7

Sep 2006

26.2

Jun 2012

%

monthly

Jan 2005 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-06
Iran

25.8

Feb 2017

26.5

Jan 2017

-2.6

Jan 1965

98.3

Mar 2000

%

monthly

Jan 1965 - Feb 2017

Updated on 2018-10-18
Ireland

-7.2

May 2018

-7.5

Apr 2018

-23.2

Aug 2009

44.6

Dec 2007

%

monthly

Jan 2000 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-17
Israel

3.8

Jul 2018

4.1

Jun 2018

1.5

Aug 2003

11.6

Feb 2002

%

monthly

Dec 2000 - Jul 2018

Updated on 2018-10-26
Italy

-0.6

May 2018

-0.4

Apr 2018

-4.8

May 2014

19.4

Dec 2007

%

monthly

Jan 2000 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-17
Ivory Coast

21.0

May 2016

23.2

Apr 2016

-22.0

Mar 1966

64.1

Aug 1975

%

monthly

Jan 1965 - May 2016

Updated on 2018-10-26
Japan

2.5

Aug 2018

2.7

Jul 2018

-2.7

Feb 2008

6.4

Nov 2016

%

monthly

Apr 2004 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-24
Jordan

4.9

May 2018

4.0

Apr 2018

-1.0

Aug 2003

33.5

Mar 2006

%

monthly

Jan 2003 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-12
Kazakhstan

0.6

Sep 2018

4.6

Aug 2018

-7.0

Jul 2017

107.4

Jun 2007

%

monthly

Dec 2002 - Sep 2018

Updated on 2018-10-24
Kenya

5.9

May 2018

7.1

Apr 2018

-8.4

Sep 2000

30.1

Sep 2011

%

monthly

Dec 1996 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-24
South Korea

6.0

Aug 2018

6.8

Jul 2018

-0.5

Feb 2010

22.3

Nov 2008

%

monthly

Dec 2002 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-17
Kosovo

12.2

May 2018

11.2

Apr 2018

5.6

Aug 2016

4,109.7

Jan 2009

%

monthly

Nov 2008 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-06-26
Kuwait

1.7

May 2018

3.3

Apr 2018

-7.7

May 2001

34.1

Jan 2008

%

monthly

Jan 1995 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-12
Kyrgyzstan

16.3

Jun 2018

14.8

May 2018

-76.2

Apr 2009

366.4

Jun 2010

%

monthly

Dec 2003 - Jun 2018

Updated on 2018-07-17
Laos

6.4

Dec 2017

14.4

Sep 2017

-30.1

Jun 2007

142.3

Dec 1997

%

quarterly

Dec 1992 - Dec 2017

Updated on 2018-06-13
Latvia

-4.9

May 2018

-3.4

Apr 2018

-17.0

Nov 2009

62.3

Dec 2005

%

monthly

Jul 2004 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-17
Lebanon

2.2

Jan 2018

2.2

Dec 2017

-11.8

Sep 1967

299.9

Oct 1987

%

monthly

Mar 1966 - Jan 2018

Updated on 2018-10-09
Lithuania

13.0

May 2018

3.2

Apr 2018

-17.5

Aug 2000

124.8

Jul 1999

%

monthly

Dec 1994 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-16
Luxembourg

9.7

May 2018

6.0

Apr 2018

-14.6

Dec 2002

74.8

Mar 2006

%

monthly

Jan 2000 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-17
Macedonia

2.5

Aug 2018

2.5

Jul 2018

-7.7

Oct 2016

67.1

Dec 2007

%

monthly

Jan 2004 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-09-21
Malawi

35.5

Aug 2017

39.8

Jul 2017

-77.0

Mar 2001

1,353.8

Mar 2002

%

monthly

Jan 1976 - Aug 2017

Updated on 2018-07-16
Malaysia

7.6

Aug 2018

7.1

Jul 2018

-6.1

Apr 1999

33.3

Jun 1997

%

monthly

Jan 1988 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-18
Malta

2.6

Aug 2018

2.6

Jul 2018

-3.4

Sep 2014

16.1

Jun 2010

%

monthly

Jan 2009 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-30
Mauritius

-3.1

May 2018

9.9

Apr 2018

-3.3

Sep 2014

26.0

Jul 2008

%

monthly

Jun 2006 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-06-29
Mexico

13.2

Apr 2018

11.9

Mar 2018

-0.5

Mar 2010

20.1

Jun 2016

%

monthly

Dec 2002 - Apr 2018

Updated on 2018-06-25
Moldova

-3.7

Jun 2018

-3.3

May 2018

-12.1

Oct 2015

50.0

Apr 2008

%

monthly

Jan 2001 - Jun 2018

Updated on 2018-07-20
Mongolia

2.4

Aug 2018

0.7

Jul 2018

-43.7

Apr 2000

164.4

Feb 2014

%

monthly

Dec 1993 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-23
Montenegro

-0.0

Jun 2018

8.7

May 2018

-19.6

Mar 2015

185.8

Oct 2007

%

monthly

Jan 2006 - Jun 2018

Updated on 2018-07-27
Morocco

3.7

Aug 2018

3.5

Jul 2018

0.4

Mar 2016

27.3

May 2007

%

monthly

Dec 2002 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-09-28
Myanmar

20.9

May 2018

21.3

Apr 2018

-9.6

Jan 2013

39.8

Dec 2010

%

monthly

Dec 2002 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-10-18
Nepal

28.3

Jun 2018

25.8

May 2018

4.9

Jan 2004

39.5

Aug 2011

%

monthly

Jan 2002 - Jun 2018

Updated on 2018-07-16
Netherlands

-2.9

May 2018

-3.9

Apr 2018

-9.6

Dec 2013

21.0

Apr 2008

%

monthly

Dec 2002 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-17
New Zealand

5.2

Aug 2018

3.8

Jul 2018

-3.2

Jul 1989

16.3

Sep 2005

%

monthly

Mar 1989 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-18
Nigeria

-3.8

Sep 2018

-7.4

Aug 2018

-88.6

Mar 2007

1,165.5

Mar 2008

%

monthly

Nov 1993 - Sep 2018

Updated on 2018-10-30
Norway

5.9

May 2018

6.2

Apr 2018

-4.8

Oct 1992

24.4

Feb 1987

%

monthly

Dec 1986 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-19
Oman

6.4

May 2018

7.9

Apr 2018

-7.2

Sep 2005

58.8

Sep 2008

%

monthly

Dec 2000 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-18
Pakistan

13.4

Aug 2018

13.3

Jul 2018

7.1

Nov 2014

22.6

Oct 2012

%

monthly

Jun 2009 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-15
Panama

5.2

Apr 2018

13.4

Mar 2018

-4.4

Feb 2003

21.2

Oct 2016

%

monthly

Dec 2002 - Apr 2018

Updated on 2018-07-11
Paraguay

11.0

Aug 2018

10.2

Jul 2018

-26.2

Dec 2003

53.5

Dec 2008

%

monthly

Dec 2002 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-18
Peru

25.5

Sep 2018

23.5

Aug 2018

-29.4

Jul 2005

162.9

Jul 2008

%

monthly

Jan 1993 - Sep 2018

Updated on 2018-10-25
Philippines

15.0

Aug 2018

16.1

Jul 2018

-7.9

Jan 2006

18.8

May 2016

%

monthly

Dec 2002 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-03
Poland

7.2

Jun 2018

5.9

May 2018

-0.3

Feb 2003

40.4

Dec 2008

%

monthly

Dec 1997 - Jun 2018

Updated on 2018-07-23
Portugal

2.6

May 2018

1.2

Apr 2018

-9.7

Nov 2012

14.1

Dec 2001

%

monthly

Dec 2001 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-11
Qatar

5.5

May 2018

6.2

Apr 2018

-2.6

Jul 2014

64.0

Feb 2008

%

monthly

Jan 2008 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-15
Romania

4.3

May 2018

4.9

Apr 2018

-5.3

Jul 2013

66.6

Feb 2008

%

monthly

Dec 2005 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-06
Russia

5.0

Aug 2018

5.8

Jul 2018

-9.3

Apr 2005

49.7

May 2007

%

monthly

Dec 2001 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-12
Serbia

0.3

Jun 2018

-0.0

May 2018

-7.0

Jul 2013

56.0

Oct 2008

%

monthly

Dec 2004 - Jun 2018

Updated on 2018-07-20
Singapore

5.2

Aug 2018

6.2

Jul 2018

-16.1

Dec 2002

37.1

Nov 2007

%

monthly

Jan 1992 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-17
Slovakia

8.5

May 2018

9.4

Apr 2018

-8.6

May 2013

25.9

Apr 2007

%

monthly

Jan 2007 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-17
Slovenia

6.5

May 2018

0.2

Apr 2018

-20.2

Apr 2014

26.8

Nov 2007

%

monthly

Jan 2005 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-16
South Africa

6.5

Aug 2018

5.7

Jul 2018

-0.9

Apr 2010

30.1

Jul 1981

%

monthly

Mar 1966 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-24
Spain

-2.4

Aug 2018

-2.0

Jul 2018

-10.2

Dec 2013

28.2

May 2006

%

monthly

Jan 2000 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-15
Sri Lanka

11.0

Aug 2018

10.1

Jul 2018

-1.0

Apr 2010

42.7

Mar 2012

%

monthly

Jan 1997 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-15
Sudan

41.4

Jun 2018

48.0

Mar 2018

9.3

Jun 2008

113.5

Sep 2006

%

quarterly

Mar 2003 - Jun 2018

Updated on 2018-10-03
Sweden

4.5

May 2018

5.2

Apr 2018

-6.7

Feb 2010

21.1

Feb 2009

%

monthly

Dec 2002 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-23
Switzerland

3.8

Aug 2018

3.8

Jul 2018

-0.4

Jun 2002

15.2

May 1989

%

monthly

Dec 1988 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-09-28
Syria

23.0

Dec 2011

25.5

Nov 2011

3.9

Dec 2002

44.8

Oct 2005

%

monthly

Dec 2002 - Dec 2011

Updated on 2018-10-03
Taiwan

6.0

Jun 2018

5.7

May 2018

-3.8

Jul 2002

48.8

Jun 1974

%

monthly

Jul 1962 - Jun 2018

Updated on 2018-07-23
Tajikistan

-29.9

Mar 2018

-27.1

Feb 2018

-54.7

Oct 2004

137.5

Dec 2011

%

monthly

Dec 2002 - Mar 2018

Updated on 2018-06-12
Thailand

6.7

Aug 2018

6.3

Jul 2018

-0.0

Jan 2007

16.8

Nov 2012

%

monthly

Jan 2004 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-09-28
Tunisia

11.3

Aug 2018

12.0

Jul 2018

-68.5

Feb 2010

322.8

Feb 2011

%

monthly

Feb 1995 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-25
Turkey

34.7

Aug 2018

23.4

Jul 2018

7.6

May 2007

153.6

Oct 1996

%

monthly

Jan 1987 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-03
Ukraine

11.2

Jun 2018

11.0

May 2018

-17.1

Feb 2016

81.6

Feb 2008

%

monthly

Dec 2003 - Jun 2018

Updated on 2018-07-27
United Arab Emirates

5.2

Aug 2016

6.2

Jul 2016

-1,932.7

Aug 1977

910.9

Oct 1977

%

monthly

Jan 1976 - Aug 2016

Updated on 2018-06-12
United Kingdom

1.7

May 2018

1.0

Apr 2018

-6.0

Mar 2014

27.2

Aug 1989

%

monthly

Jan 1988 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-16
United States

5.1

Dec 2016

4.9

Sep 2016

-2.4

Jun 2010

10.0

Mar 2008

%

quarterly

Dec 2002 - Dec 2016

Updated on 2018-10-15
Uruguay

4.1

May 2018

0.1

Apr 2018

-38.0

Jul 2005

80.9

Jan 2003

%

monthly

Dec 2002 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-06-25
Venezuela

48.2

Sep 2011

43.1

Aug 2011

-99.8

Dec 1975

112.1

Jun 2006

%

monthly

Jan 1967 - Sep 2011

Updated on 2018-06-25
Vietnam

12.3

Mar 2018

13.2

Feb 2018

6.7

Feb 2012

81.4

Dec 1993

%

monthly

Dec 1993 - Mar 2018

Updated on 2018-07-02
Yemen

5.8

Jan 2015

6.2

Dec 2014

-12,845.2

Aug 2007

890.9

Jul 2007

%

monthly

Dec 2005 - Jan 2015

Updated on 2018-06-25

More Indicators for Turkey

Indicator Last Previous Min Max Unit Frequency Range
Aluminum: Exports

1,706,584.938

2017

1,491,024.467

2016

118,474.744

1995

1,706,584.938

2017

USD th

yearly

1995 - 2017

Updated on 2018-07-10
Building Permits

22,481.000

Mar 2018

33,022.000

Dec 2017

6,022.000

Mar 2002

64,035.000

Dec 2010

Unit

quarterly

Mar 2002 - Mar 2018

Updated on 2018-05-22
Business Confidence Growth

-21.1

Oct 2018

-20.8

Sep 2018

-50.5

Dec 2008

42.2

Jan 2010

% Point

monthly

Jan 2008 - Oct 2018

Updated on 2018-10-25
Business Confidence: Net Balance

-8.9

Oct 2018

-9.6

Sep 2018

-40.2

Nov 2008

17.0

Jan 2007

% Point

monthly

Jan 2007 - Oct 2018

Updated on 2018-10-25
CPI: Food and Non Alcoholic Beverage Change

27.697

Sep 2018

19.746

Aug 2018

1.383

Apr 2016

27.697

Sep 2018

%

monthly

Jan 2004 - Sep 2018

Updated on 2018-10-03
Capital Adequacy Ratio

15.9

May 2018

16.4

Apr 2018

14.6

Sep 2015

29.7

Feb 2005

%

monthly

Jan 2005 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-02
Coal Consumption

44.591

2017

38.457

2016

3.620

1967

44.591

2017

TOE mn

yearly

1965 - 2017

Updated on 2018-06-14
Coal Production

20.780

2017

15.460

2016

6.933

1981

20.780

2017

TOE mn

yearly

1981 - 2017

Updated on 2018-06-14
Consolidated Fiscal Balance: % of GDP

-1.6

2017

-1.3

2016

-5.3

2009

-0.7

2006

%

yearly

2006 - 2017

Updated on 2018-05-09
Consumer Confidence Growth

-10.1

Oct 2018

-9.4

Sep 2018

-24.0

Dec 2008

15.8

Sep 2016

% Point

monthly

Jan 2005 - Oct 2018

Updated on 2018-10-23
Consumer Confidence: Net Balance

-26.9

Jul 2018

-29.7

Jun 2018

-44.3

Nov 2008

-1.3

Feb 2004

% Point

monthly

Jan 2004 - Jul 2018

Updated on 2018-07-23
Consumer Price Index CPI Growth

24.5

Sep 2018

17.9

Aug 2018

-3.0

Nov 1960

125.9

Jan 1995

%

monthly

Jan 1956 - Sep 2018

Updated on 2018-10-03
Container Port Throughput

8,851,485.000

2016

8,297,985.000

2015

4,521,713.000

2009

8,851,485.000

2016

TEU

yearly

2008 - 2016

Updated on 2017-10-25
Core CPI Change

23.715

Sep 2018

16.947

Aug 2018

2.308

Jun 2009

23.715

Sep 2018

%

monthly

Jan 2004 - Sep 2018

Updated on 2018-10-03
Credit to Households

141.660

Dec 2017

144.170

Sep 2017

0.082

Sep 1988

170.031

Jun 2014

USD bn

quarterly

Jun 1985 - Dec 2017

Updated on 2018-06-05
Credit to Private Non-Financial Sector

692.447

Dec 2017

704.720

Sep 2017

11.255

Jun 1985

704.720

Sep 2017

USD bn

quarterly

Jun 1985 - Dec 2017

Updated on 2018-06-05
Crude Oil: Imports

519.600

2017

502.400

2016

287.000

2009

519.600

2017

Barrel/Day th

yearly

1995 - 2017

Updated on 2018-06-12
Crude Oil: Production

49.200

2017

49.500

2016

41.600

2008

68.000

1998

Barrel/Day th

yearly

1995 - 2017

Updated on 2018-06-12
Current Account Balance

-5,885.0

May 2018

-5,452.0

Apr 2018

-9,407.0

Mar 2011

1,132.0

Sep 1998

USD mn

monthly

Jan 1992 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-11
Debt Service Ratio: Private Non-Financial Sector

15.800

Dec 2017

15.600

Sep 2017

5.100

Sep 2005

15.800

Dec 2017

%

quarterly

Mar 2002 - Dec 2017

Updated on 2018-06-05
Direct Investment Abroad

428.0

May 2018

160.0

Apr 2018

-275.0

Jan 2006

2,018.0

Mar 2012

USD mn

monthly

Jan 1992 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-11
Domestic Credit

576,153.9

May 2018

608,628.0

Apr 2018

22,301.6

Apr 1986

633,034.1

Jul 2014

USD mn

monthly

Jan 1986 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-06-29
Electricity Production

28,297

Jul 2018

23,067

Jun 2018

9,325

May 2001

28,297

Jul 2018

GWh

monthly

Jan 2001 - Jul 2018

Updated on 2018-08-29
Employed Persons

28,818,000.000

Apr 2018

28,852,000.000

Mar 2018

19,349,000.000

Jan 2005

28,915,000.000

Feb 2018

Person

monthly

Jan 2005 - Apr 2018

Updated on 2018-07-16
Equity Market Index

99,956.9

Sep 2018

92,723.4

Aug 2018

1.0

Jan 1986

119,528.8

Jan 2018

01Jan1986=1

monthly

Jan 1986 - Sep 2018

Updated on 2018-09-28
Exchange Rate against USD

4.628

Jun 2018

4.414

May 2018

0.000

Jul 1958

4.628

Jun 2018

TRY/USD

monthly

Feb 1957 - Jun 2018

Updated on 2018-06-28
Exports: ICT Goods

1,920,228.419

2016

2,111,790.653

2015

1,013,335.673

2000

3,226,928.578

2005

USD th

yearly

2000 - 2016

Updated on 2018-04-25
Exports: Medicament

686,386.201

2017

596,143.285

2016

45,483.212

1995

696,268.981

2013

USD th

yearly

1995 - 2017

Updated on 2018-07-10
Exports: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Product

223,345.579

2017

269,599.905

2016

17,728.004

1995

342,067.196

2015

USD th

yearly

1995 - 2017

Updated on 2018-07-10
Exports: Telecommunication Equipment

218,327.423

2017

305,327.312

2016

40,522.376

1995

305,327.312

2016

USD th

yearly

1995 - 2017

Updated on 2018-07-09
Exports: Television

1,475,284.980

2017

1,403,568.548

2016

201,554.256

1995

2,933,948.995

2005

USD th

yearly

1995 - 2017

Updated on 2018-07-09
External Debt

466,657.0

Mar 2018

454,283.8

Dec 2017

43,910.7

Dec 1989

466,657.0

Mar 2018

USD mn

quarterly

Dec 1989 - Mar 2018

Updated on 2018-06-29
External Debt: % of GDP

53.3

2017

47.4

2016

26.1

1990

55.8

2001

%

yearly

1989 - 2017

Updated on 2018-06-29
External Debt: Short Term

119,722.0

Jun 2018

122,336.0

Mar 2018

5,745.0

Dec 1989

135,138.0

Dec 2014

USD mn

quarterly

Dec 1989 - Jun 2018

Updated on 2018-09-28
External Debt: Short Term: % of GDP

13.8

2017

11.8

2016

5.4

1989

14.5

2014

%

yearly

1989 - 2017

Updated on 2018-06-29
Forecast: Consumer Price Index Growth

8.000

2023

8.000

2022

6.251

2009

110.638

1980

%

yearly

1980 - 2023

Updated on 2018-07-12
Forecast: Current Account Balance

-40.781

2023

-41.360

2022

-74.402

2011

3.760

2001

USD bn

yearly

1980 - 2023

Updated on 2018-07-12
Forecast: Exports of Goods Growth

4.396

2023

4.015

2022

-7.758

2009

69.772

1981

%

yearly

1980 - 2023

Updated on 2018-10-09
Forecast: GDP PPP Per Capita

35,131.223

2023

33,721.419

2022

3,491.032

1980

35,131.223

2023

PPP Intl $

yearly

1980 - 2023

Updated on 2018-07-12
Forecast: Government Expenditure

2,198.720

2023

1,970.968

2022

67.698

2000

2,198.720

2023

TRY bn

yearly

2000 - 2023

Updated on 2018-07-12
Forecast: Government Net Debt

1,858.346

2023

1,661.736

2022

88.008

2000

1,858.346

2023

TRY bn

yearly

2000 - 2023

Updated on 2018-07-12
Forecast: Government Revenue

2,050.525

2023

1,836.635

2022

53.344

2000

2,050.525

2023

TRY bn

yearly

2000 - 2023

Updated on 2018-07-12
Forecast: Nominal GDP Per Capita

14,082.923

2023

13,455.186

2022

1,627.694

1984

14,082.923

2023

USD

yearly

1980 - 2023

Updated on 2018-07-12
Forecast: Population

86.905

2023

85.910

2022

44.510

1980

86.905

2023

Person mn

yearly

1980 - 2023

Updated on 2018-07-12
Forecast: Real GDP Growth

3.585

2023

3.612

2022

-5.962

2001

11.113

2011

%

yearly

1980 - 2023

Updated on 2018-07-12
Forecast: Unemployment Rate

10.550

2023

10.550

2022

5.997

2000

13.053

2009

%

yearly

1980 - 2023

Updated on 2018-07-12
Foreign Direct Investment

857.0

May 2018

863.0

Apr 2018

-697.0

Jul 2000

6,837.0

May 2006

USD mn

monthly

Jan 1992 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-11
Foreign Direct Investment: % of GDP

1.1

Mar 2018

1.3

Dec 2017

-0.5

Sep 2000

7.0

Mar 2007

%

quarterly

Mar 1987 - Mar 2018

Updated on 2018-07-11
Foreign Exchange Reserves

68,943.0

Aug 2018

76,947.0

Jul 2018

16,484.0

Jun 2001

112,569.0

Nov 2013

USD mn

monthly

Apr 2000 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-09-28
Foreign Exchange Reserves: % of GDP

8.413

Jun 2018

9.446

Mar 2018

6.560

Jun 2001

11.957

Mar 2007

%

quarterly

Jun 2000 - Jun 2018

Updated on 2018-09-24
Foreign Exchange Reserves: Months of Import

4.7

Aug 2018

3.8

Jul 2018

3.4

Dec 2004

7.4

Feb 2009

NA

monthly

Apr 2000 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-22
Foreign Portfolio Investment

2,943.000

Mar 2018

1,512.000

Dec 2017

-6,478.000

Sep 1998

15,805.000

Dec 2012

USD mn

quarterly

Mar 1992 - Mar 2018

Updated on 2018-07-11
GDP Deflator Growth

13.6

Mar 2018

10.9

Dec 2017

2.7

Sep 2009

65.5

Dec 2001

%

quarterly

Mar 1999 - Mar 2018

Updated on 2018-06-11
GDP per Capita

10,596.610

2017

10,882.535

2016

3,084.394

2001

12,480.371

2013

USD

yearly

1998 - 2017

Updated on 2018-05-09
Gold Production

25,000.000

2015

32,000.000

2014

500.000

2000

33,980.000

2013

kg

yearly

1990 - 2015

Updated on 2017-09-20
Gold Reserves

24,513.000

May 2018

25,104.000

Apr 2018

96.005

Aug 1967

25,345.000

Mar 2018

USD mn

monthly

Jan 1957 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-18
Gross Fixed Capital Formation

62,317.841

Mar 2018

70,031.005

Dec 2017

8,442.833

Sep 2001

73,156.387

Dec 2014

USD mn

quarterly

Mar 1998 - Mar 2018

Updated on 2018-06-11
Gross National Product

840,009.312

2017

854,540.544

2016

15,600.000

1967

941,959.560

2013

USD mn

yearly

1967 - 2017

Updated on 2018-06-29
Gross Savings Rate

25.4

Mar 2018

25.1

Dec 2017

14.4

Mar 2000

29.3

Sep 2015

%

quarterly

Mar 1998 - Mar 2018

Updated on 2018-06-11
House Prices Growth

9.9

Aug 2018

10.5

Jul 2018

7.6

Jan 2011

19.0

May 2015

%

monthly

Jan 2011 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-16
Household Debt

87,382.3

Aug 2018

105,620.5

Jul 2018

74.7

Feb 1989

155,147.6

May 2013

USD mn

monthly

Jan 1986 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-09-28
Household Debt: % of GDP

23.8

2013

21.2

2012

3.0

2003

23.8

2013

%

yearly

2003 - 2013

Updated on 2015-02-13
Household Expenditure per Capita

3,580.498

2017

3,783.004

2016

3,088.580

2007

4,332.611

2013

USD

yearly

2007 - 2017

Updated on 2018-07-27
Household Income per Capita

3,831.304

2016

3,674.248

2015

3,495.944

2009

4,138.977

2013

USD

yearly

2007 - 2016

Updated on 2018-05-09
Imports: ICT Goods

13,382,141.946

2016

11,751,430.131

2015

2,832,556.244

2001

13,382,141.946

2016

USD th

yearly

2000 - 2016

Updated on 2018-04-25
Imports: Medicament

2,917,560.301

2017

2,719,505.745

2016

227,629.232

1995

3,481,867.087

2008

USD th

yearly

1995 - 2017

Updated on 2018-07-10
Imports: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Product

1,862,710.135

2017

1,808,920.544

2016

323,186.336

1995

1,866,926.890

2015

USD th

yearly

1995 - 2017

Updated on 2018-07-10
Imports: Telecommunication Equipment

4,406,039.780

2017

6,068,936.711

2016

590,783.104

1995

6,299,127.490

2015

USD th

yearly

1995 - 2017

Updated on 2018-07-09
Imports: Television

736,958.662

2017

738,049.700

2016

16,351.860

1995

1,075,167.310

2012

USD th

yearly

1995 - 2017

Updated on 2018-07-09
Industrial Production Index Growth

6.1

May 2018

6.4

Apr 2018

-20.3

Mar 2009

24.2

Jan 2011

%

monthly

Jan 1987 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-17
Investment: % of GDP

32.2

Mar 2018

30.8

Dec 2017

12.8

Mar 1999

33.3

Sep 2011

%

quarterly

Mar 1998 - Mar 2018

Updated on 2018-06-11
Labour Force Participation Rate

54.0

Jul 2018

53.8

Jun 2018

42.4

Feb 2006

54.0

Jul 2018

%

monthly

Jan 2005 - Jul 2018

Updated on 2018-10-15
Labour Productivity Growth

2.67

Jun 2018

2.73

Mar 2018

-13.78

Mar 2009

8.34

Jun 2006

%

quarterly

Mar 2006 - Jun 2018

Updated on 2018-09-17
Liner Shipping Connectivity Index

57.210

2017

57.150

2016

25.600

2004

57.210

2017

2004=100

yearly

2004 - 2017

Updated on 2017-09-29
Liquid Assets Ratio

42.9

Aug 2018

43.4

Jul 2018

42.1

Jan 2017

61.7

Jun 2007

%

monthly

Apr 2007 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-01
Market Capitalization: % of GDP

28.3

2017

23.5

2016

14.8

1998

57.0

1999

%

yearly

1998 - 2017

Updated on 2018-05-09
Minerals Production

104,157,930.000

2016

106,716,779.000

2015

98,709,865.000

2010

115,925,159.000

2013

Metric Ton

yearly

2009 - 2016

Updated on 2018-04-26
Money Supply M1

111,455.935

May 2018

113,180.684

Apr 2018

278.761

Jul 1968

125,239.458

Sep 2017

USD mn

monthly

Dec 1963 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-06-29
Money Supply M2

366,056.505

Aug 2018

393,745.296

Jul 2018

7,922.207

Mar 1980

456,005.591

Jul 2014

USD mn

monthly

Dec 1976 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-09-28
Motor Vehicle Production

1,695,731.000

Dec 2017

1,485,927.000

Dec 2016

270,685.000

Dec 2001

1,695,731.000

Dec 2017

Unit

semiannually

Dec 2001 - Dec 2017

Updated on 2018-03-08
Motor Vehicle Registered

15,360.956

2015

14,373.317

2014

8,427.000

2005

15,360.956

2015

Unit th

yearly

2005 - 2015

Updated on 2017-06-27
Motor Vehicle Sales: Commercial Cars

257,518.000

Dec 2017

250,919.000

Dec 2016

79,351.000

Jun 2014

285,598.000

Dec 2015

Unit

semiannually

Dec 2005 - Dec 2017

Updated on 2018-03-08
Motor Vehicle Sales: Passenger Cars

722,875.790

Dec 2017

756,938.000

Dec 2016

225,773.000

Jun 2014

756,938.000

Dec 2016

Unit

semiannually

Dec 2005 - Dec 2017

Updated on 2018-03-08
Motor Vehicles Sales

23,933

Sep 2018

35,154

Aug 2018

2,248

Jan 2002

163,432

Dec 2015

Unit

monthly

Jan 1999 - Sep 2018

Updated on 2018-10-12
Motor Vehicles Sales Growth

-67.5

Sep 2018

-52.7

Aug 2018

-84.4

Jan 2002

459.4

Jan 2003

%

monthly

Jan 2000 - Sep 2018

Updated on 2018-10-12
Natural Gas: Consumption

4.998

2017

4.286

2016

0.003

1982

4.998

2017

Cub ft/Day bn

yearly

1982 - 2017

Updated on 2018-06-14
Natural Gas: Imports

55,121.000

2017

46,352.000

2016

6,958.000

1995

55,121.000

2017

Cub m mn

yearly

1995 - 2017

Updated on 2018-06-12
Nominal GDP

202,332.6

Jun 2018

206,609.6

Mar 2018

16,421.2

Mar 1987

253,734.9

Sep 2014

USD mn

quarterly

Mar 1987 - Jun 2018

Updated on 2018-09-10
Nominal GDP Growth

21.917

Mar 2018

19.004

Dec 2017

-3.312

Jun 2009

223.617

Mar 1998

%

quarterly

Mar 1988 - Mar 2018

Updated on 2018-06-11
Nominal Residential Property Price Index

254.470

Mar 2018

249.380

Dec 2017

97.220

Mar 2010

254.470

Mar 2018

2010=100

quarterly

Mar 2010 - Mar 2018

Updated on 2018-05-30
Nominal Residential Property Price Index Growth

10.090

Mar 2018

11.300

Dec 2017

8.470

Mar 2011

19.030

Jun 2015

%

quarterly

Mar 2011 - Mar 2018

Updated on 2018-05-30
Non Performing Loans Ratio

2.9

Aug 2018

3.0

Jul 2018

2.7

Jun 2012

17.0

Jan 2003

%

monthly

Jan 2003 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-01
Non-Performing Loans

15,866.388

Jun 2018

15,391.859

May 2018

3,845.431

Jun 2004

18,639.826

Sep 2016

USD mn

monthly

Dec 2002 - Jun 2018

Updated on 2018-07-30
Number of Subscriber Fixed Line

11,077,559.000

2016

11,493,057.000

2015

180,030.000

1960

19,125,163.000

2004

Unit

yearly

1960 - 2016

Updated on 2018-04-19
Number of Subscriber Mobile

75,061,699.000

2016

73,639,261.000

2015

0.000

1985

75,061,699.000

2016

Person

yearly

1960 - 2016

Updated on 2018-04-19
Oil Consumption

1,006.622

2017

972.396

2016

69.374

1965

1,006.622

2017

Barrel/Day th

yearly

1965 - 2017

Updated on 2018-06-14
P/E ratio

8.540

Sep 2018

8.090

Aug 2018

2.370

Jan 1989

824.420

Dec 2001

NA

monthly

Jan 1986 - Sep 2018

Updated on 2018-10-02
Policy Rate

24.00

Sep 2018

17.75

Aug 2018

4.50

Dec 2013

24.00

Sep 2018

% pa

monthly

May 2010 - Sep 2018

Updated on 2018-09-28
Population

80.8

2017

79.8

2016

13.6

1927

80.8

2017

Person mn

yearly

1927 - 2017

Updated on 2018-05-09
Private Consumption Expenditure

125,629.646

Mar 2018

138,296.173

Dec 2017

12,982.432

Mar 1987

152,759.490

Sep 2014

USD mn

quarterly

Mar 1987 - Mar 2018

Updated on 2018-06-11
Private Consumption: % of GDP

60.4

Mar 2018

59.0

Dec 2017

58.2

Sep 2015

73.4

Mar 2000

%

quarterly

Mar 1998 - Mar 2018

Updated on 2018-06-11
Public Consumption Expenditure

29,493.805

Mar 2018

37,048.060

Dec 2017

1,106.958

Mar 1987

37,048.060

Dec 2017

USD mn

quarterly

Mar 1987 - Mar 2018

Updated on 2018-06-11
Public Consumption: % of GDP

14.2

Mar 2018

15.8

Dec 2017

9.3

Sep 1998

17.0

Dec 2009

%

quarterly

Mar 1998 - Mar 2018

Updated on 2018-06-11
Real Effective Exchange Rate

54.6

Sep 2018

57.5

Aug 2018

54.6

Sep 2018

113.3

Dec 2007

2005=100

monthly

Jan 2003 - Sep 2018

Updated on 2018-10-04
Real GDP Growth

7.4

Mar 2018

7.3

Dec 2017

-14.4

Mar 2009

11.7

Mar 2011

%

quarterly

Mar 1999 - Mar 2018

Updated on 2018-06-11
Real Residential Property Price Index

136.140

Mar 2018

137.170

Dec 2017

98.500

Mar 2010

139.820

Sep 2017

2010=100

quarterly

Mar 2010 - Mar 2018

Updated on 2018-05-30
Real Residential Property Price Index Growth

-0.170

Mar 2018

-0.860

Dec 2017

-0.860

Dec 2017

10.490

Jun 2015

%

quarterly

Mar 2011 - Mar 2018

Updated on 2018-05-30
Reserve Requirement Ratio

8.0

Sep 2018

10.5

Aug 2018

8.0

Sep 2018

16.0

Sep 2011

%

monthly

Jan 2011 - Sep 2018

Updated on 2018-10-01
Retail Sales Growth

4.7

May 2018

7.7

Apr 2018

-3.1

Jul 2016

15.6

Jan 2011

%

monthly

Jan 2011 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-07-18
Short Term Interest Rate

27.96

Sep 2018

23.41

Aug 2018

5.25

Apr 2013

52.97

Sep 2002

% pa

monthly

Aug 2002 - Sep 2018

Updated on 2018-09-28
Silver Production

202.000

2015

205.000

2014

7.000

1986

363.520

2010

Metric Ton

yearly

1986 - 2015

Updated on 2018-04-20
Tax Revenue

9,236.717

Jun 2018

13,868.719

May 2018

6,168.497

Mar 2009

16,921.534

Aug 2011

USD mn

monthly

Jan 2006 - Jun 2018

Updated on 2018-07-20
Teledensity: Fixed Line

13.932

2016

14.684

2015

0.655

1960

29.450

2001

Number

yearly

1960 - 2016

Updated on 2018-04-19
Teledensity: Mobile

94.402

2016

94.082

2015

0.000

1985

94.402

2016

Number

yearly

1960 - 2016

Updated on 2018-04-19
Total Deposits

388,101.021

Aug 2018

414,427.088

Jul 2018

81,325.458

Apr 2003

471,837.195

Jul 2014

USD mn

monthly

Dec 2002 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-10-01
Total Exports

13,813.2

May 2018

13,765.4

Apr 2018

1,919.8

Apr 1999

14,401.4

Mar 2018

USD mn

monthly

Jan 1997 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-06-29
Total Exports Growth

4.8

Aug 2018

10.3

Jul 2018

-38.6

May 2009

46.0

Jan 2008

%

monthly

Jan 1998 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-09-28
Total Imports

20,468.9

May 2018

20,816.1

Apr 2018

3,065.4

Jan 1999

22,911.1

Jan 2018

USD mn

monthly

Jan 1997 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-06-29
Total Imports Growth

3.4

May 2018

15.4

Apr 2018

-43.4

Apr 2009

51.5

Apr 2004

%

monthly

Jan 1998 - May 2018

Updated on 2018-06-29
Tourism Revenue

2,813

Jun 2018

2,422

May 2018

256

Jan 2002

4,947

Aug 2014

USD mn

monthly

Jan 2001 - Jun 2018

Updated on 2018-09-24
Tourism Revenue Growth

31.7

Jun 2018

27.1

May 2018

-43.2

Jun 2016

75.0

Apr 2004

%

monthly

Jan 2002 - Jun 2018

Updated on 2018-09-24
Trade Balance

-2,942.9

Aug 2018

-4,762.4

Jul 2018

-10,134.6

Sep 2011

-453.8

May 2001

USD mn

monthly

Jan 1997 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-09-28
Unemployment Rate

10.30

Apr 2018

9.90

Mar 2018

8.00

Jun 2012

13.90

Apr 2009

%

monthly

Jan 2005 - Apr 2018

Updated on 2018-07-16
Visitor Arrivals

5,324,115

Aug 2018

5,617,551

Jul 2018

623,405

Feb 2006

5,617,551

Jul 2018

Person

monthly

Jan 2005 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-09-28
Visitor Arrivals Growth

15.6

Aug 2018

11.7

Jul 2018

-40.1

Jun 2016

48.6

Aug 2017

%

monthly

Jan 2006 - Aug 2018

Updated on 2018-09-28
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