Foreign Direct Investment: % of GDP

Country/Region Last Previous Frequency Range
Australia (%) quarterly Sep 1959 - Sep 2019

1.2

% Sep 2019

5.0

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Sep 1959 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-04
Brazil (%) quarterly Mar 1995 - Dec 2019

5.0

% Dec 2019

4.9

% Sep 2019

quarterly

Mar 1995 - Dec 2019

Updated on 2020-01-27
Canada (%) quarterly Mar 1961 - Sep 2019

2.2

% Sep 2019

4.1

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1961 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-04
China (%) quarterly Mar 1998 - Dec 2019

1.4

% Dec 2019

0.5

% Sep 2019

quarterly

Mar 1998 - Dec 2019

Updated on 2020-02-14
European Union (%) quarterly Mar 1999 - Sep 2019

5.1

% Sep 2019

0.4

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1999 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-01-20
France (%) quarterly Mar 1997 - Dec 2019

1.6

% Dec 2019

1.0

% Sep 2019

quarterly

Mar 1997 - Dec 2019

Updated on 2020-02-07
Germany (%) quarterly Mar 1991 - Dec 2019

-2.4

% Dec 2019

3.5

% Sep 2019

quarterly

Mar 1991 - Dec 2019

Updated on 2020-02-14
Greece (%) quarterly Mar 1999 - Sep 2019

1.4

% Sep 2019

2.4

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1999 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-05
India (%) quarterly Jun 2004 - Sep 2019

1.4

% Sep 2019

2.4

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Jun 2004 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-31
Indonesia (%) quarterly Mar 1990 - Dec 2019

1.6

% Dec 2019

2.0

% Sep 2019

quarterly

Mar 1990 - Dec 2019

Updated on 2020-02-10
Italy (%) quarterly Mar 1988 - Sep 2019

2.6

% Sep 2019

-0.3

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1988 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-31
Japan (%) quarterly Mar 1980 - Dec 2019

0.7

% Dec 2019

0.6

% Sep 2019

quarterly

Mar 1980 - Dec 2019

Updated on 2020-02-17
Malaysia (%) quarterly Mar 2005 - Dec 2019

2.1

% Dec 2019

0.6

% Sep 2019

quarterly

Mar 2005 - Dec 2019

Updated on 2020-02-12
Russia (%) quarterly Mar 1994 - Sep 2019

2.1

% Sep 2019

1.5

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1994 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-02-19
Singapore (%) quarterly Mar 1995 - Dec 2019

29.4

% Dec 2019

28.4

% Sep 2019

quarterly

Mar 1995 - Dec 2019

Updated on 2020-02-17
South Africa (%) quarterly Mar 1985 - Sep 2019

1.3

% Sep 2019

2.1

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1985 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-13
Turkey (%) quarterly Mar 1987 - Sep 2019

0.9

% Sep 2019

1.2

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1987 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-02-19
United Kingdom (%) quarterly Mar 1987 - Sep 2019

2.8

% Sep 2019

2.2

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1987 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-02-19
United States (%) quarterly Mar 1960 - Sep 2019

0.8

% Sep 2019

1.8

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1960 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-20

All countries/regions

Country/Region Last Previous Frequency Range
Albania (%) quarterly Mar 2008 - Sep 2019

7.8

% Sep 2019

6.9

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2008 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-24
Algeria (%) yearly 1970 - 2018

0.4

% 2018

0.7

% 2017

yearly

1970 - 2018

Updated on 2019-12-23
Argentina (%) quarterly Mar 2004 - Sep 2019

1.5

% Sep 2019

0.6

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2004 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-19
Armenia (%) quarterly Dec 1994 - Sep 2019

2.4

% Sep 2019

1.9

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Dec 1994 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-30
Australia (%) quarterly Sep 1959 - Sep 2019

1.2

% Sep 2019

5.0

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Sep 1959 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-04
Austria (%) quarterly Mar 1970 - Sep 2019

10.2

% Sep 2019

1.9

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1970 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-01-30
Azerbaijan (%) quarterly Mar 2013 - Jun 2019

2.2

% Jun 2019

0.6

% Mar 2019

quarterly

Mar 2013 - Jun 2019

Updated on 2020-02-04
Bahrain (%) yearly 2012 - 2018

4.0

% 2018

4.0

% 2017

yearly

2012 - 2018

Updated on 2019-06-18
Bangladesh (%) yearly 1998 - 2019

0.9

% 2019

0.7

% 2018

yearly

1998 - 2019

Updated on 2020-01-15
Belarus (%) quarterly Mar 1996 - Sep 2019

0.0

% Sep 2019

-1.1

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1996 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-30
Belgium (%) quarterly Mar 2002 - Sep 2019

9.3

% Sep 2019

-21.3

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2002 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-01-30
Bolivia (%) quarterly Mar 1990 - Jun 2019

-0.7

% Jun 2019

0.4

% Mar 2019

quarterly

Mar 1990 - Jun 2019

Updated on 2019-12-24
Bosnia and Herzegovina (%) quarterly Mar 2008 - Sep 2019

2.1

% Sep 2019

4.4

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2008 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-01-20
Botswana (%) quarterly Mar 2004 - Sep 2019

0.9

% Sep 2019

1.2

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2004 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-01-30
Brazil (%) quarterly Mar 1995 - Dec 2019

5.0

% Dec 2019

4.9

% Sep 2019

quarterly

Mar 1995 - Dec 2019

Updated on 2020-01-27
Brunei (%) quarterly Mar 2015 - Dec 2018

-8.3

% Dec 2018

16.0

% Sep 2018

quarterly

Mar 2015 - Dec 2018

Updated on 2019-06-27
Bulgaria (%) quarterly Mar 2007 - Dec 2019

-0.5

% Dec 2019

2.7

% Sep 2019

quarterly

Mar 2007 - Dec 2019

Updated on 2020-02-19
Cambodia (%) yearly 2010 - 2018

13.1

% 2018

12.6

% 2017

yearly

2010 - 2018

Updated on 2020-01-06
Canada (%) quarterly Mar 1961 - Sep 2019

2.2

% Sep 2019

4.1

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1961 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-04
Chile (%) quarterly Mar 2003 - Sep 2019

6.2

% Sep 2019

5.4

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2003 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-11-18
China (%) quarterly Mar 1998 - Dec 2019

1.4

% Dec 2019

0.5

% Sep 2019

quarterly

Mar 1998 - Dec 2019

Updated on 2020-02-14
Colombia (%) yearly 2000 - 2018

3.5

% 2018

4.4

% 2017

yearly

2000 - 2018

Updated on 2020-02-14
Croatia (%) quarterly Mar 1997 - Sep 2019

2.9

% Sep 2019

-0.2

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1997 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-31
Cyprus (%) quarterly Mar 2008 - Sep 2019

20.4

% Sep 2019

43.7

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2008 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-30
Czech Republic (%) quarterly Mar 1995 - Sep 2019

4.9

% Sep 2019

3.5

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1995 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-01-15
Denmark (%) quarterly Mar 1999 - Sep 2019

3.3

% Sep 2019

-0.1

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1999 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-20
Ecuador (%) quarterly Mar 1993 - Sep 2019

0.5

% Sep 2019

1.0

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1993 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-01-03
Egypt (%) quarterly Sep 2001 - Sep 2019

2.5

% Sep 2019

2.3

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Sep 2001 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-01-26
Estonia (%) quarterly Mar 2008 - Sep 2019

8.0

% Sep 2019

-1.0

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2008 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-10
European Union (%) quarterly Mar 1999 - Sep 2019

5.1

% Sep 2019

0.4

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1999 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-01-20
Finland (%) quarterly Mar 2006 - Sep 2019

2.3

% Sep 2019

-5.3

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2006 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-20
France (%) quarterly Mar 1997 - Dec 2019

1.6

% Dec 2019

1.0

% Sep 2019

quarterly

Mar 1997 - Dec 2019

Updated on 2020-02-07
Georgia (%) quarterly Mar 1997 - Sep 2019

9.1

% Sep 2019

4.9

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1997 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-31
Germany (%) quarterly Mar 1991 - Dec 2019

-2.4

% Dec 2019

3.5

% Sep 2019

quarterly

Mar 1991 - Dec 2019

Updated on 2020-02-14
Greece (%) quarterly Mar 1999 - Sep 2019

1.4

% Sep 2019

2.4

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1999 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-05
Hong Kong SAR, China (%) quarterly Mar 1999 - Sep 2019

24.0

% Sep 2019

-22.4

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1999 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-20
Hungary (%) quarterly Mar 2006 - Sep 2019

-6.3

% Sep 2019

0.8

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2006 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-20
Iceland (%) quarterly Mar 1995 - Sep 2019

1.1

% Sep 2019

0.2

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1995 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-03
India (%) quarterly Jun 2004 - Sep 2019

1.4

% Sep 2019

2.4

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Jun 2004 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-31
Indonesia (%) quarterly Mar 1990 - Dec 2019

1.6

% Dec 2019

2.0

% Sep 2019

quarterly

Mar 1990 - Dec 2019

Updated on 2020-02-10
Iran (%) yearly 1997 - 2017

0.5

% 2017

0.7

% 2016

yearly

1997 - 2017

Updated on 2019-12-19
Ireland (%) quarterly Mar 1998 - Sep 2019

33.1

% Sep 2019

-15.4

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1998 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-19
Israel (%) quarterly Mar 1979 - Sep 2019

3.2

% Sep 2019

4.1

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1979 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-02-16
Italy (%) quarterly Mar 1988 - Sep 2019

2.6

% Sep 2019

-0.3

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1988 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-31
Ivory Coast (%) yearly 1975 - 2018

2.1

% 2018

2.6

% 2017

yearly

1975 - 2018

Updated on 2019-12-04
Japan (%) quarterly Mar 1980 - Dec 2019

0.7

% Dec 2019

0.6

% Sep 2019

quarterly

Mar 1980 - Dec 2019

Updated on 2020-02-17
Jordan (%) quarterly Mar 1992 - Sep 2019

1.7

% Sep 2019

2.0

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1992 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-01-21
Kazakhstan (%) quarterly Dec 1997 - Jun 2019

-3.4

% Jun 2019

7.0

% Mar 2019

quarterly

Dec 1997 - Jun 2019

Updated on 2019-12-31
Kenya (%) yearly 1996 - 2018

1.8

% 2018

1.6

% 2017

yearly

1996 - 2018

Updated on 2020-01-10
Kosovo (%) quarterly Mar 2010 - Sep 2019

5.7

% Sep 2019

2.2

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2010 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-31
Kuwait (%) yearly 2009 - 2018

-0.0

% 2018

0.1

% 2017

yearly

2009 - 2018

Updated on 2020-01-23
Kyrgyzstan (%) quarterly Mar 2000 - Sep 2019

-2.4

% Sep 2019

6.4

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2000 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-02-17
Laos (%) yearly 1988 - 2018

7.3

% 2018

9.9

% 2017

yearly

1988 - 2018

Updated on 2019-12-17
Latvia (%) quarterly Mar 1995 - Sep 2019

4.9

% Sep 2019

-0.8

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1995 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-04
Lebanon (%) yearly 2004 - 2018

4.8

% 2018

4.7

% 2017

yearly

2004 - 2018

Updated on 2019-12-24
Lithuania (%) quarterly Mar 1993 - Sep 2019

4.8

% Sep 2019

3.6

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1993 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-20
Luxembourg (%) quarterly Mar 2002 - Sep 2019

-272.4

% Sep 2019

-645.1

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2002 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-20
Macau SAR, China (%) yearly 1982 - 2018

4.2

% 2018

1.2

% 2017

yearly

1982 - 2018

Updated on 2019-12-26
Macedonia (%) quarterly Mar 2000 - Sep 2019

4.2

% Sep 2019

4.4

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2000 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-02-19
Malawi (%) yearly 1970 - 2018

4.4

% 2018

4.4

% 2017

yearly

1970 - 2018

Updated on 2019-12-20
Malaysia (%) quarterly Mar 2005 - Dec 2019

2.1

% Dec 2019

0.6

% Sep 2019

quarterly

Mar 2005 - Dec 2019

Updated on 2020-02-12
Malta (%) quarterly Mar 1995 - Sep 2019

29.4

% Sep 2019

27.1

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1995 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-23
Mauritius (%) quarterly Mar 2010 - Sep 2019

27.5

% Sep 2019

24.2

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2010 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-23
Mexico (%) quarterly Mar 1993 - Sep 2019

1.7

% Sep 2019

1.7

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1993 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-02
Moldova (%) quarterly Mar 1995 - Sep 2019

2.8

% Sep 2019

10.6

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1995 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-01-13
Mongolia (%) quarterly Mar 2000 - Dec 2019

23.0

% Dec 2019

12.1

% Sep 2019

quarterly

Mar 2000 - Dec 2019

Updated on 2020-02-17
Montenegro (%) quarterly Mar 2010 - Sep 2019

2.7

% Sep 2019

13.2

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2010 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-20
Morocco (%) quarterly Mar 2014 - Sep 2019

2.1

% Sep 2019

1.7

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2014 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-01-02
Nepal (%) yearly 2001 - 2019

0.4

% 2019

0.6

% 2018

yearly

2001 - 2019

Updated on 2019-09-02
Netherlands (%) quarterly Jun 2003 - Sep 2019

28.3

% Sep 2019

-9.9

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Jun 2003 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-24
New Zealand (%) quarterly Jun 2000 - Sep 2019

1.2

% Sep 2019

5.9

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Jun 2000 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-18
Nigeria (%) quarterly Mar 2010 - Sep 2019

0.4

% Sep 2019

0.8

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2010 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-23
Norway (%) quarterly Mar 2005 - Sep 2019

3.3

% Sep 2019

-5.7

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2005 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-02-19
Oman (%) yearly 1970 - 2018

8.0

% 2018

4.1

% 2017

yearly

1970 - 2018

Updated on 2020-01-06
Pakistan (%) yearly 1977 - 2019

0.6

% 2019

1.1

% 2018

yearly

1977 - 2019

Updated on 2019-12-06
Panama (%) quarterly Mar 2007 - Sep 2019

8.9

% Sep 2019

13.0

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2007 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-18
Paraguay (%) quarterly Mar 2000 - Sep 2019

0.6

% Sep 2019

1.6

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2000 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-23
Peru (%) quarterly Mar 1990 - Sep 2019

2.0

% Sep 2019

3.7

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1990 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-11-22
Philippines (%) quarterly Mar 2005 - Sep 2019

1.8

% Sep 2019

1.9

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2005 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-01-22
Poland (%) quarterly Mar 2000 - Sep 2019

3.3

% Sep 2019

-1.4

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2000 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-02-19
Portugal (%) quarterly Mar 1996 - Sep 2019

4.6

% Sep 2019

2.7

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1996 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-02-20
Qatar (%) quarterly Mar 2011 - Jun 2019

0.7

% Jun 2019

-4.2

% Mar 2019

quarterly

Mar 2011 - Jun 2019

Updated on 2019-10-01
Romania (%) quarterly Mar 1995 - Sep 2019

3.3

% Sep 2019

1.7

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1995 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-02-19
Russia (%) quarterly Mar 1994 - Sep 2019

2.1

% Sep 2019

1.5

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1994 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-02-19
Saudi Arabia (%) quarterly Mar 2006 - Sep 2019

0.6

% Sep 2019

0.6

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2006 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-31
Serbia (%) quarterly Mar 2013 - Sep 2019

8.2

% Sep 2019

10.2

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2013 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-02-19
Singapore (%) quarterly Mar 1995 - Dec 2019

29.4

% Dec 2019

28.4

% Sep 2019

quarterly

Mar 1995 - Dec 2019

Updated on 2020-02-17
Slovakia (%) quarterly Mar 2008 - Sep 2019

1.5

% Sep 2019

-0.7

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2008 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-02-19
Slovenia (%) quarterly Mar 1995 - Sep 2019

1.4

% Sep 2019

0.4

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1995 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-02-19
South Africa (%) quarterly Mar 1985 - Sep 2019

1.3

% Sep 2019

2.1

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1985 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-13
South Korea (%) quarterly Mar 1980 - Sep 2019

0.3

% Sep 2019

0.7

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1980 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-02-19
Spain (%) quarterly Mar 1980 - Sep 2019

0.7

% Sep 2019

-0.8

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1980 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-02-19
Sri Lanka (%) quarterly Mar 2002 - Sep 2019

0.6

% Sep 2019

1.2

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2002 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-31
Sudan (%) yearly 1996 - 2018

2.5

% 2018

1.0

% 2017

yearly

1996 - 2018

Updated on 2019-11-29
Sweden (%) quarterly Mar 1982 - Sep 2019

3.6

% Sep 2019

4.3

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1982 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-02-19
Switzerland (%) quarterly Mar 2000 - Sep 2019

-5.0

% Sep 2019

-3.1

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2000 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-02-19
Syria (%) yearly 1980 - 2011

1.2

% 2011

2.4

% 2010

yearly

1980 - 2011

Updated on 2019-12-19
Taiwan (%) quarterly Mar 1981 - Sep 2019

1.2

% Sep 2019

0.8

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1981 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-02-12
Tajikistan (%) quarterly Mar 2010 - Dec 2018

2.4

% Dec 2018

-1.4

% Sep 2018

quarterly

Mar 2010 - Dec 2018

Updated on 2020-02-19
Thailand (%) quarterly Mar 1993 - Sep 2019

3.3

% Sep 2019

1.6

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1993 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-02-17
Tunisia (%) quarterly Dec 2003 - Jun 2019

2.1

% Jun 2019

2.2

% Mar 2019

quarterly

Dec 2003 - Jun 2019

Updated on 2019-11-25
Turkey (%) quarterly Mar 1987 - Sep 2019

0.9

% Sep 2019

1.2

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1987 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-02-19
Ukraine (%) quarterly Mar 1996 - Sep 2019

1.5

% Sep 2019

2.0

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1996 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-02-19
United Arab Emirates (%) yearly 1972 - 2018

2.5

% 2018

2.7

% 2017

yearly

1972 - 2018

Updated on 2019-12-24
United Kingdom (%) quarterly Mar 1987 - Sep 2019

2.8

% Sep 2019

2.2

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1987 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2020-02-19
United States (%) quarterly Mar 1960 - Sep 2019

0.8

% Sep 2019

1.8

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 1960 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-20
Uruguay (%) quarterly Mar 2005 - Sep 2019

2.5

% Sep 2019

3.5

% Jun 2019

quarterly

Mar 2005 - Sep 2019

Updated on 2019-12-30
Venezuela (%) yearly 1970 - 2017

-0.0

% 2017

0.0

% 2016

yearly

1970 - 2017

Updated on 2019-12-19
Vietnam (%) yearly 1985 - 2018

6.3

% 2018

5.0

% 2017

yearly

1985 - 2018

Updated on 2019-12-16
Yemen (%) yearly 1990 - 2018

-1.0

% 2018

-1.0

% 2017

yearly

1990 - 2018

Updated on 2019-09-20