Explore our Data

Submit

Pakistan Forecast: Government Net Debt

1994 - 2022 | Yearly | PKR bn | International Monetary Fund - World Economic Outlook

Pakistan’s Government Net Debt is forecasted to be 24,246.79 PKR bn in Jun 2018 as reported by International Monetary Fund - World Economic Outlook. It records an increase from the last reported number of 21,663.08 PKR bn in Jun 2017. Looking ahead, Pakistan’s Government Net Debt is projected to stand at 36,294.03 PKR bn in Jun 2022. The data is updated yearly and is categorized in CEIC under World Trend Plus’s Country Forecast – Table IMF.WEO: General Government Gross Debt.

CEIC only displays a select group of indicators on our website.
Explore the complete set of 4 million+ time series by registering for a free trial.

What is Pakistan's Forecast: Government Net Debt in 2022?

Last Previous Min Max Unit Frequency Range

36,294.03

2022

32,986.50

2021

1,492.39

1994

36,294.03

2022

PKR bn

yearly

1994 - 2022

Updated on 2017

View Pakistan's Forecast: Government Net Debt from 1994 to 2022 in the chart:

Feed & API Get This Data

IMF Forecast: General Government Gross Debt: EMDE: MENAP: Pakistan

Series Details
Series ID

293158401

Name

IMF Forecast: General Government Gross Debt: EMDE: MENAP: Pakistan

Country

Pakistan

Frequency

Yearly

Unit

PKR bn

Status

Active

Source

International Monetary Fund - World Economic Outlook

First Date

1994

Last Date

2022

Last Updated

10 Oct 2017

Statistics
Mean

11,355.89

Variance

110,661,405.59

Standard deviation

10,519.57

Skewness

1.04

Kurtosis

-0.10

Coefficient variation

0.93

Median

6,080.84

Max
2022

36,294.03

Min
1994

1,492.39

Previous observation
2021

32,986.50

Last observation
2022

36,294.03

Number of Observations

29

Get This Data

More Countries for Forecast: Government Net Debt

Country Last Previous Min Max Unit Frequency Range
Albania

1,201.10

2022

1,183.02

2021

239.20

1997

1,201.10

2022

ALL bn

yearly

1997 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Algeria

3,381.30

2022

3,491.19

2021

671.03

1991

3,656.25

2019

DZD bn

yearly

1991 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Angola

27,314.07

2022

24,411.40

2021

95.83

2000

27,314.07

2022

AOA bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Antigua and Barbuda

4.25

2022

4.06

2021

1.22

1990

4.25

2022

XCD bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Argentina

11,117.82

2022

9,681.36

2021

63.25

1992

11,117.82

2022

ARS bn

yearly

1992 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Armenia

4,221.51

2022

4,006.22

2021

269.65

1996

4,221.51

2022

AMD bn

yearly

1996 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Australia

828.25

2022

827.86

2021

66.23

1989

831.55

2020

AUD bn

yearly

1989 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Austria

294.45

2022

291.58

2021

68.62

1988

295.72

2016

EUR bn

yearly

1988 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Azerbaijan

28.71

2022

28.59

2021

0.39

1997

30.93

2017

AZN bn

yearly

1995 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Bahamas

7.86

2022

7.62

2021

0.69

1990

7.86

2022

BSD bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Bahrain

20.24

2022

18.33

2021

0.14

1991

20.24

2022

BHD bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Bangladesh

13,983.27

2022

12,108.35

2021

1,545.67

2003

13,983.27

2022

BDT bn

yearly

2003 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Barbados

9.30

2022

9.42

2021

1.93

1994

9.75

2016

BBD bn

yearly

1994 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Belarus

70.01

2022

68.73

2021

0.48

2004

70.01

2022

BYN bn

yearly

2004 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Belgium

501.11

2022

490.92

2021

68.61

1980

501.11

2022

EUR bn

yearly

1980 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Belize

3.69

2022

3.65

2021

1.52

2001

3.69

2022

BZD bn

yearly

2001 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Benin

3,349.99

2022

3,354.97

2021

307.44

2006

3,354.97

2021

XOF bn

yearly

1999 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Bhutan

209.68

2022

219.37

2021

3.73

1995

219.37

2021

BTN bn

yearly

1993 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Bolivia

198.81

2022

181.84

2021

32.25

2001

198.81

2022

BOB bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Bosnia and Herzegovina

12.93

2022

13.00

2021

4.06

2003

13.16

2019

BAM bn

yearly

1998 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Botswana

22.34

2022

24.16

2021

2.42

1998

29.23

2018

BWP bn

yearly

1998 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Brazil

8,798.79

2022

8,134.91

2021

786.13

2000

8,798.79

2022

BRL bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Brunei

0.47

2022

0.47

2021

0.00

2005

0.70

2014

BND bn

yearly

1980 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Bulgaria

24.93

2022

24.91

2021

10.53

2010

25.75

2016

BGN bn

yearly

1998 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Burkina Faso

4,342.43

2022

3,987.45

2021

687.15

2006

4,342.43

2022

XOF bn

yearly

2002 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Burundi

14,261.11

2022

10,992.61

2021

561.12

2009

14,261.11

2022

BIF bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Cambodia

59,221.17

2022

53,240.33

2021

2,774.46

1996

59,221.17

2022

KHR bn

yearly

1996 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Cameroon

7,780.59

2022

7,600.14

2021

1,014.62

2008

7,780.59

2022

XAF bn

yearly

1998 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Canada

2,079.69

2022

2,053.56

2021

144.94

1980

2,079.69

2022

CAD bn

yearly

1980 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Cape Verde

263.87

2022

261.41

2021

45.02

1997

263.87

2022

CVE bn

yearly

1997 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Central African Republic

339.41

2022

363.74

2021

197.38

2009

767.29

2005

XAF bn

yearly

1997 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Chad

2,349.23

2022

2,300.34

2021

619.84

1999

3,060.99

2016

XAF bn

yearly

1999 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Chile

72,141.24

2022

67,148.14

2021

3,517.36

2007

72,141.24

2022

CLP bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
China

75,147.90

2022

66,861.09

2021

1,319.84

1995

75,147.90

2022

RMB bn

yearly

1995 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Colombia

528,336.29

2022

517,471.93

2021

32,830.76

1996

528,336.29

2022

COP bn

yearly

1996 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Comoros

105.12

2022

98.36

2021

43.33

2013

124.16

1984

KMF bn

yearly

1984 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Congo

4,406.69

2022

4,710.30

2021

0.00

1999

5,427.96

2017

XAF bn

yearly

1989 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the

25,148.75

2022

23,305.00

2021

1,777.82

2000

25,148.75

2022

CDF bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Costa Rica

31,737.69

2022

27,743.08

2021

817.12

1996

31,737.69

2022

CRC bn

yearly

1996 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Croatia

300.12

2022

299.24

2021

35.39

1998

300.12

2022

HRK bn

yearly

1998 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Cyprus

18.94

2022

19.24

2021

3.59

1995

19.91

2018

EUR bn

yearly

1995 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Czech Republic

1,541.90

2022

1,574.78

2021

210.11

1996

1,840.41

2013

CZK bn

yearly

1995 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Denmark

823.85

2022

829.14

2021

475.50

2007

869.61

2014

DKK bn

yearly

1992 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Djibouti

152.79

2022

136.16

2021

56.22

1999

152.79

2022

DJF bn

yearly

1999 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Dominica

1.25

2022

1.26

2021

0.31

1990

1.26

2021

XCD bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Dominican Republic

2,402.08

2022

2,120.88

2021

38.82

1997

2,402.08

2022

DOP bn

yearly

1997 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Ecuador

55.80

2022

52.53

2021

10.18

2009

55.80

2022

USD bn

yearly

2001 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Egypt

5,852.02

2022

5,522.32

2021

341.74

2002

5,852.02

2022

EGP bn

yearly

2002 - 2022

Updated on 2017
El Salvador

24.00

2022

22.32

2021

2.11

1992

24.00

2022

SVC bn

yearly

1991 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Equatorial Guinea

4,015.89

2022

3,943.00

2021

9.73

1980

4,015.89

2022

XAF bn

yearly

1980 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Eritrea

214.04

2022

191.08

2021

11.53

2000

214.04

2022

ERN bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Estonia

2.67

2022

2.56

2021

0.25

1995

2.67

2022

EUR bn

yearly

1995 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Ethiopia

2,125.66

2022

1,849.85

2021

25.98

1992

2,125.66

2022

ETB bn

yearly

1992 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Fiji

6.63

2022

6.44

2021

1.08

1992

6.63

2022

FJD bn

yearly

1992 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Finland

154.76

2022

152.73

2021

3.67

1980

154.76

2022

EUR bn

yearly

1980 - 2022

Updated on 2017
France

2,454.54

2022

2,433.31

2021

94.10

1980

2,454.54

2022

EUR bn

yearly

1980 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Gabon

5,692.85

2022

5,686.25

2021

1,385.13

1992

5,841.17

2019

XAF bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Gambia

67.64

2022

65.14

2021

9.46

2000

67.64

2022

GMD bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Georgia

23.04

2022

21.71

2021

4.09

2001

23.04

2022

GEL bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Germany

1,898.94

2022

1,940.93

2021

618.22

1991

2,204.94

2012

EUR bn

yearly

1991 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Ghana

217.66

2022

203.28

2021

0.09

1990

217.66

2022

GHS bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Greece

345.23

2022

344.90

2021

1.60

1980

356.29

2011

EUR bn

yearly

1980 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Grenada

1.72

2022

1.76

2021

0.34

1992

2.50

2014

XCD bn

yearly

1991 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Guatemala

210.24

2022

192.46

2021

25.37

2000

210.24

2022

GTQ bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Guinea

73,214.26

2022

67,178.28

2021

1,753.92

1990

73,214.26

2022

GNF bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Guinea-Bissau

408.62

2022

388.13

2021

257.91

2011

686.94

2005

GWP bn

yearly

1997 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Guyana

652.75

2022

599.74

2021

210.88

2007

652.75

2022

GYD bn

yearly

1997 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Haiti

243.43

2022

231.93

2021

23.17

1997

243.43

2022

HTG bn

yearly

1997 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Honduras

310.04

2022

312.13

2021

30.20

1991

312.13

2021

HNL bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Hong Kong

0.00

2022

0.00

2021

0.00

2022

45.53

2002

HKD bn

yearly

2001 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Hungary

32,936.90

2022

31,506.93

2021

4,905.21

1995

32,936.90

2022

HUF bn

yearly

1995 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Iceland

875.67

2022

1,003.97

2021

11.63

1982

1,653.19

2014

ISK bn

yearly

1982 - 2022

Updated on 2017
India

178,944.35

2022

163,758.01

2021

5,076.45

1991

178,944.35

2022

INR bn

yearly

1991 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Indonesia

6,337,388.23

2022

5,806,167.71

2021

1,218,649.90

2003

6,337,388.23

2022

IDR bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Iran

7,157,248.14

2022

6,377,274.71

2021

61,300.88

1996

7,157,248.14

2022

IRR bn

yearly

1996 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Iraq

157,654.11

2022

162,715.62

2021

85,229.43

2013

182,419.27

2004

IQD bn

yearly

2004 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Ireland

207.69

2022

210.16

2021

34.19

1990

215.30

2013

EUR bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Israel

1,023.13

2022

972.26

2021

429.41

2000

1,023.13

2022

ILS bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Italy

2,294.52

2022

2,294.66

2021

562.27

1988

2,295.18

2020

EUR bn

yearly

1988 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Ivory Coast

16,075.16

2022

14,978.93

2021

6,160.39

2012

16,075.16

2022

XOF bn

yearly

1997 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Jamaica

2,090.53

2022

2,077.02

2021

297.09

1999

2,163.35

2014

JMD bn

yearly

1999 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Japan

1,380,586.07

2022

1,367,897.52

2021

124,777.80

1980

1,380,586.07

2022

JPY bn

yearly

1980 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Jordan

28.76

2022

28.87

2021

4.17

1988

28.87

2021

JOD bn

yearly

1988 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Kazakhstan

15,457.17

2022

13,786.06

2021

614.80

2005

15,457.17

2022

KZT bn

yearly

2002 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Kenya

6,684.02

2022

6,256.95

2021

517.14

1998

6,684.02

2022

KES bn

yearly

1998 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Kiribati

0.14

2022

0.12

2021

0.00

1988

0.14

2022

AUD bn

yearly

1988 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Kosovo

2.42

2022

2.19

2021

0.25

2009

2.42

2022

EUR bn

yearly

2006 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Kuwait

20.64

2022

19.42

2021

0.06

1990

20.64

2022

KWD bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Kyrgyzstan

391.07

2022

371.73

2021

79.29

2001

391.07

2022

KGS bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Latvia

9.87

2022

9.79

2021

0.54

1998

9.87

2022

LVL bn

yearly

1998 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Lebanon

174,047.08

2022

161,010.41

2021

37,989.09

2000

174,047.08

2022

LBP bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Lesotho

24.22

2022

22.41

2021

0.25

1991

24.22

2022

LSL bn

yearly

1988 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Liberia

1.58

2022

1.50

2021

0.43

2010

4.55

2007

LRD bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Lithuania

14.69

2022

14.81

2021

2.84

1998

15.94

2015

LTL bn

yearly

1998 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Luxembourg

10.43

2022

10.45

2021

1.35

1995

11.31

2015

EUR bn

yearly

1995 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Macau

0.00

2022

0.00

2021

0.00

2017

0.00

2017

MOP bn

yearly

2017 - 2017

Updated on 2017
Macedonia

393.68

2022

368.65

2021

66.95

1999

393.68

2022

MKD bn

yearly

1999 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Madagascar

25,820.96

2022

23,881.34

2021

1,089.06

1990

25,820.96

2022

MGA bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Malawi

3,510.57

2022

3,304.36

2021

137.13

2006

3,510.57

2022

MWK bn

yearly

2002 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Malaysia

917.43

2022

892.90

2021

90.56

1996

917.43

2022

MYR bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Maldives

72.89

2022

68.67

2021

2.93

1997

72.89

2022

MVR bn

yearly

1997 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Mali

4,856.56

2022

4,438.29

2021

651.78

2006

4,856.56

2022

XOF bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Malta

5.95

2022

6.01

2021

1.25

1995

6.08

2020

EUR bn

yearly

1995 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Marshall Islands

0.06

2022

0.05

2021

0.01

1995

0.07

2012

USD bn

yearly

1995 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Mauritania

1,934.54

2022

1,851.64

2021

637.34

2007

1,934.54

2022

MRO bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Mexico

15,679.32

2022

14,774.09

2021

1,396.99

1996

15,679.32

2022

MXN bn

yearly

1996 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Micronesia, Federated States of

0.06

2022

0.06

2021

0.06

2022

0.12

1995

USD bn

yearly

1995 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Moldova

91.44

2022

83.77

2021

5.15

1995

91.44

2022

MDL bn

yearly

1995 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Montenegro

3.00

2022

3.08

2021

0.61

2003

3.25

2019

EUR bn

yearly

2002 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Morocco

811.17

2022

782.46

2021

179.90

1991

811.17

2022

MAD bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Mozambique

1,011.88

2022

945.91

2021

76.02

1999

1,011.88

2022

MZM bn

yearly

1999 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Myanmar

69,736.12

2022

60,804.40

2021

3,145.95

1998

69,736.12

2022

MMK bn

yearly

1998 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Namibia

147.05

2022

126.71

2021

1.77

1993

147.05

2022

NAD bn

yearly

1993 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Nepal

1,393.68

2022

1,221.33

2021

236.01

2000

1,393.68

2022

NPR bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Netherlands

365.17

2022

379.76

2021

76.15

1980

450.62

2014

EUR bn

yearly

1980 - 2022

Updated on 2017
New Zealand

55.16

2022

59.88

2021

25.14

1985

76.09

2016

NZD bn

yearly

1985 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Nicaragua

258.66

2022

225.89

2021

35.84

1997

258.66

2022

NIO bn

yearly

1997 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Niger

3,223.86

2022

3,118.68

2021

509.51

2008

3,223.86

2022

XOF bn

yearly

1995 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Nigeria

65,175.03

2022

54,961.19

2021

358.18

1990

65,175.03

2022

NGN bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Norway

1,361.20

2022

1,304.54

2021

148.67

1980

1,361.20

2022

NOK bn

yearly

1980 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Oman

22.30

2022

20.91

2021

0.92

1990

22.30

2022

OMR bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Pakistan

36,294.03

2022

32,986.50

2021

1,492.39

1994

36,294.03

2022

PKR bn

yearly

1994 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Panama

29.79

2022

28.81

2021

6.77

1994

29.79

2022

PAB bn

yearly

1994 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Papua New Guinea

43.69

2022

39.82

2021

3.27

1994

43.69

2022

PGK bn

yearly

1994 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Paraguay

59,036.60

2022

55,260.18

2021

2,802.27

1994

59,036.60

2022

PYG bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Peru

259.53

2022

249.97

2021

78.47

2001

259.53

2022

PEN bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Philippines

7,939.95

2022

7,309.52

2021

1,229.22

1994

7,939.95

2022

PHP bn

yearly

1993 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Poland

1,306.11

2022

1,262.19

2021

165.20

1995

1,306.11

2022

PLN bn

yearly

1995 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Portugal

259.40

2022

255.82

2021

31.80

1990

259.40

2022

EUR bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Qatar

428.35

2022

427.18

2021

2.87

1990

428.35

2022

QAR bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Romania

544.37

2022

498.62

2021

23.91

2000

544.37

2022

RON bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Russia

21,713.81

2022

20,695.11

2021

2,827.50

2006

21,713.81

2022

RUB bn

yearly

1999 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Rwanda

5,892.06

2022

5,318.97

2021

388.29

1995

5,892.06

2022

RWF bn

yearly

1995 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Saint Kitts and Nevis

1.64

2022

1.59

2021

0.41

1996

2.98

2011

XCD bn

yearly

1996 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Saint Lucia

3.76

2022

3.60

2021

0.27

1990

3.76

2022

XCD bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines

1.84

2022

1.81

2021

0.38

1990

1.84

2022

XCD bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Samoa

1.43

2022

1.36

2021

0.45

2005

1.43

2022

WST bn

yearly

1998 - 2022

Updated on 2017
San Marino

0.37

2022

0.37

2021

0.21

2007

0.37

2022

EUR bn

yearly

2004 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Sao Tome and Principe

8,162.43

2022

8,105.90

2021

1,617.72

2008

8,162.43

2022

STD bn

yearly

2001 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Saudi Arabia

758.47

2022

741.54

2021

44.30

2014

758.47

2022

SAR bn

yearly

1991 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Senegal

7,774.82

2022

7,334.80

2021

2.30

1996

7,774.82

2022

XOF bn

yearly

1996 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Serbia

3,366.29

2022

3,316.85

2021

787.44

2007

3,366.29

2022

RSD bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Seychelles

11.79

2022

12.00

2021

1.58

1990

17.57

2008

SCR bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Sierra Leone

39,943.22

2022

37,622.36

2021

2,717.15

2007

39,943.22

2022

SLL bn

yearly

2001 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Singapore

530.37

2022

519.00

2021

51.43

1990

530.37

2022

SGD bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Slovakia

47.20

2022

46.29

2021

4.27

1995

47.20

2022

EUR bn

yearly

1995 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Slovenia

37.71

2022

36.36

2021

1.76

1995

37.71

2022

EUR bn

yearly

1995 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Solomon Islands

2.85

2022

2.43

2021

0.77

2016

2.85

2022

SBD bn

yearly

2003 - 2022

Updated on 2017
South Africa

3,918.62

2022

3,605.52

2021

399.44

2000

3,918.62

2022

ZAR bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
South Korea

881,421.53

2022

828,722.51

2021

26,432.99

1990

881,421.53

2022

KRW bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Spain

1,281.53

2022

1,252.01

2021

16.00

1980

1,281.53

2022

EUR bn

yearly

1980 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Sri Lanka

14,351.32

2022

13,461.87

2021

310.78

1990

14,351.32

2022

LKR bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Sudan

673.32

2022

605.83

2021

1.50

1992

673.32

2022

SDG bn

yearly

1992 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Suriname

28.74

2022

26.80

2021

0.00

1990

28.74

2022

SRD bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Swaziland

26.45

2022

25.03

2021

0.74

1993

26.45

2022

SZL bn

yearly

1993 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Sweden

1,569.38

2022

1,569.57

2021

1,083.96

1993

1,836.94

2015

SEK bn

yearly

1993 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Switzerland

281.35

2022

282.67

2021

123.12

1990

291.54

2004

CHF bn

yearly

1990 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Syria

838.21

2010

786.76

2009

509.17

1990

1,480.67

2002

SYP bn

yearly

1990 - 2010

Updated on 2016
Taiwan

5,518.54

2022

5,734.12

2021

2,174.76

1997

6,190.74

2016

NTD bn

yearly

1997 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Tajikistan

52.79

2022

48.93

2021

0.99

1998

52.79

2022

TJS bn

yearly

1998 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Tanzania

84,116.33

2022

74,825.00

2021

5,610.74

2001

84,116.33

2022

TZS bn

yearly

2001 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Thailand

7,474.30

2022

7,106.36

2021

685.23

1996

7,474.30

2022

THB bn

yearly

1996 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Togo

2,301.55

2022

2,298.74

2021

751.18

2011

2,309.70

2020

XOF bn

yearly

2001 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Trinidad and Tobago

137.66

2022

118.35

2021

8.61

1988

137.66

2022

TTD bn

yearly

1988 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Tunisia

92.01

2022

88.61

2021

8.72

1991

92.01

2022

TND bn

yearly

1991 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Turkey

1,447.46

2022

1,303.42

2021

88.01

2000

1,447.46

2022

TRY bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Turkmenistan

109.07

2022

94.66

2021

0.65

2007

109.07

2022

TMM bn

yearly

1997 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Tuvalu

0.01

2022

0.01

2021

0.01

2022

0.03

2014

AUD bn

yearly

2005 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Uganda

66,361.69

2022

60,529.99

2021

4,023.95

1997

66,361.69

2022

UGX bn

yearly

1997 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Ukraine

2,931.07

2022

2,879.48

2021

27.90

1997

2,931.07

2022

UAH bn

yearly

1997 - 2022

Updated on 2017
United Arab Emirates

361.99

2022

349.30

2021

10.21

2001

361.99

2022

AED bn

yearly

1999 - 2022

Updated on 2017
United Kingdom

2,043.57

2022

1,994.18

2021

110.53

1980

2,043.57

2022

GBP bn

yearly

1980 - 2022

Updated on 2017
United States

25,765.33

2022

24,672.99

2021

5,631.90

2001

25,765.33

2022

USD bn

yearly

2001 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Uruguay

1,696.21

2022

1,543.52

2021

152.79

2001

1,696.21

2022

UYU bn

yearly

2001 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Uzbekistan

87,809.68

2022

72,730.43

2021

416.06

1998

87,809.68

2022

UZS bn

yearly

1998 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Vanuatu

60.62

2022

58.08

2021

3.58

1991

60.62

2022

VUV bn

yearly

1991 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Venezuela

100,000,000,000.00

2022

55,434,869,059.04

2021

15.73

1998

100,000,000,000.00

2022

VEF bn

yearly

1998 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Vietnam

5,278,054.34

2022

4,776,299.79

2021

138,816.71

2000

5,278,054.34

2022

VND bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Yemen

12,993.29

2022

11,992.23

2021

948.12

2000

12,993.29

2022

YER bn

yearly

1999 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Zambia

279.26

2022

251.21

2021

11.49

2006

279.26

2022

ZMK bn

yearly

2000 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Zimbabwe

16.44

2022

15.54

2021

2.99

2005

16.44

2022

USD bn

yearly

2005 - 2022

Updated on 2017

More Indicators for Pakistan

Indicator Last Previous Min Max Unit Frequency Range
Government Debt: % of GDP

64.9

2016

61.3

2015

50.0

2007

67.6

2001

%

yearly

2000 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Foreign Direct Investment

277.7

Oct 2017

204.8

Sep 2017

-53.9

Jun 2015

1,262.9

Jun 2008

USD mn

monthly

Jul 1997 - Oct 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
Total Imports Growth

24.5

Oct 2017

17.6

Sep 2017

-31.8

Sep 2009

86.2

Jul 1991

%

monthly

Dec 1988 - Oct 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
Money Supply M2

136,752.39

Oct 2017

137,484.22

Sep 2017

13,049.87

May 1989

139,024.60

Jun 2017

USD mn

monthly

Jan 1988 - Oct 2017

Updated on Dec 2017
Forecast: Government Revenue

9,237.29

2022

8,269.50

2021

40.73

1980

9,237.29

2022

PKR bn

yearly

1980 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Motor Vehicle Production

220,950.00

Dec 2016

107,184.00

Jun 2016

17,196.00

Dec 2001

229,686.00

Dec 2015

Unit

semiannually

Dec 2001 - Dec 2016

Updated on Mar 2017
Teledensity: Fixed Line

1.60

2016

1.88

2015

0.15

1960

3.61

2009

Number

yearly

1960 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Real GDP Growth

5.7

2017

5.5

2016

1.6

2010

7.5

2004

%

yearly

2001 - 2017

Updated on 2017
Labour Productivity Growth

3.09

2015

4.79

2014

-3.38

2006

4.79

2014

%

yearly

2001 - 2015

Updated on 2017
Domestic Credit Growth

16.4

Oct 2017

17.0

Sep 2017

7.1

Nov 2014

22.6

Oct 2012

%

monthly

Jun 2009 - Oct 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
Market Capitalization: % of GDP

29.9

2017

26.1

2016

7.4

2001

43.5

2007

%

yearly

2000 - 2017

Updated on 2017
Total Imports

4,928.7

Oct 2017

4,473.3

Sep 2017

671.9

Apr 1998

5,092.0

May 2017

USD mn

monthly

Jan 1996 - Oct 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
CPI: Food and Non Alcoholic Beverage Change

3.44

Nov 2017

3.24

Oct 2017

-1.06

Sep 2015

34.09

Aug 2008

%

monthly

Jul 2002 - Nov 2017

Updated on Dec 2017
Forecast: Nominal GDP Per Capita

1,440.97

2016

1,424.95

2015

384.90

1980

1,440.97

2016

USD

yearly

1980 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Exports: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Product

51.67

2016

10.90

2015

4.52

1998

149.85

2012

USD th

yearly

1996 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Public Consumption: % of GDP

11.9

2017

11.3

2016

7.3

2001

16.8

1989

%

yearly

1960 - 2017

Updated on 2017
Equity Market Index

40,010.4

Nov 2017

39,617.2

Oct 2017

841.7

Oct 1998

50,591.6

May 2017

01Nov1991=1000

monthly

Sep 1996 - Nov 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
Domestic Credit

150,336.5

Oct 2017

150,384.2

Sep 2017

62,746.8

Oct 2008

150,384.2

Sep 2017

USD mn

monthly

Jun 2008 - Oct 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
Non Performing Loans Ratio

9.2

Sep 2017

9.3

Jun 2017

7.1

Jun 2007

16.7

Sep 2011

%

quarterly

Mar 2006 - Sep 2017

Updated on Dec 2017
Core CPI Change

5.50

Nov 2017

5.30

Oct 2017

3.40

Oct 2015

11.40

Jun 2012

%

monthly

Sep 2010 - Nov 2017

Updated on Dec 2017
Forecast: Government Expenditure

12,261.24

2022

10,974.72

2021

370.49

1994

12,261.24

2022

PKR bn

yearly

1993 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Motor Vehicle Sales: Commercial Cars

34,073.00

Dec 2016

18,207.00

Jun 2016

9,753.00

Jun 2013

47,457.00

Dec 2015

Unit

semiannually

Dec 2005 - Dec 2016

Updated on Mar 2017
Population

199.1

2017

195.4

2016

37.5

1950

199.1

2017

Person mn

yearly

1950 - 2017

Updated on 2017
Short Term Interest Rate

6.16

Nov 2017

6.14

Oct 2017

5.24

Dec 2004

15.52

Dec 2008

% pa

monthly

Nov 2004 - Nov 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
Gold Reserves

2,662.92

Sep 2017

2,634.19

Aug 2017

23.00

Dec 1956

3,778.71

Aug 2011

USD mn

monthly

Dec 1956 - Sep 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
Motor Vehicle Sales: Passenger Cars

177,222.00

Dec 2016

91,674.00

Jun 2016

65,904.00

Jun 2014

182,231.00

Dec 2015

Unit

semiannually

Dec 2005 - Dec 2016

Updated on Mar 2017
GDP Deflator Growth

3.6

2017

0.5

2016

0.5

2016

20.7

2009

%

yearly

2001 - 2017

Updated on 2017
Unemployment Rate

5.94

2015

5.96

2014

3.04

1986

8.27

2003

%

yearly

1980 - 2015

Updated on 2016
Direct Investment Abroad

2.0

Sep 2017

22.0

Jun 2017

-18.0

Dec 2013

143.0

Mar 2013

USD mn

quarterly

Sep 2002 - Sep 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
Total Exports

1,888.3

Oct 2017

1,675.1

Sep 2017

547.2

Jan 1999

2,617.4

Sep 2013

USD mn

monthly

Jan 1996 - Oct 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
External Debt: % of GDP

27.3

2017

26.5

2016

24.1

2015

41.8

2002

%

yearly

2000 - 2017

Updated on 2017
Producer Price Index Growth

2.9

Nov 2017

2.3

Oct 2017

-9.2

Mar 1968

38.9

Apr 1975

%

monthly

Jul 1962 - Nov 2017

Updated on Dec 2017
Trade Balance

-3,040.4

Oct 2017

-2,798.2

Sep 2017

-3,464.9

May 2017

110.6

Jun 1991

USD mn

monthly

Jan 1968 - Oct 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
Tax Revenue

8,641.66

Sep 2017

37,852.07

Jun 2017

1,471.60

Sep 2001

37,852.07

Jun 2017

USD mn

quarterly

Sep 2000 - Sep 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
Forecast: GDP PPP Per Capita

7,134.05

2022

6,737.85

2021

893.37

1980

7,134.05

2022

PPP Intl $

yearly

1980 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Natural Gas: Consumption

4.39

2016

4.21

2015

0.17

1965

4.39

2016

Cub ft/Day bn

yearly

1965 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Exchange Rate against USD

105.427

Oct 2017

105.412

Sep 2017

4.762

Apr 1972

107.649

Nov 2013

PKR/USD

monthly

Jan 1957 - Oct 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
Foreign Exchange Reserves

14,853.8

Oct 2017

14,855.3

Sep 2017

96.0

Jan 1972

19,874.0

Oct 2016

USD mn

monthly

Jan 1959 - Oct 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
Non-Performing Loans

6,012.44

Jun 2017

5,909.55

Mar 2017

3,034.27

Mar 2006

7,254.83

Sep 2011

USD mn

quarterly

Sep 2003 - Jun 2017

Updated on Aug 2017
Forecast: Real GDP Growth

5.90

2022

5.90

2021

0.36

2009

8.96

2005

%

yearly

1980 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Silver Production

2.50

2014

2.50

2013

2.50

2014

2.70

2010

Metric Ton

yearly

2008 - 2014

Updated on 2016
Consolidated Fiscal Balance: % of GDP

-4.6

2016

-5.3

2015

-8.2

2013

-2.1

2004

%

yearly

2000 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Consumer Price Index CPI Growth

4.0

Nov 2017

3.8

Oct 2017

-10.3

Feb 1959

37.8

Dec 1973

%

monthly

Jan 1958 - Nov 2017

Updated on Dec 2017
External Debt

82,980.7

Jun 2017

77,640.7

Mar 2017

37,228.8

Jun 2006

82,980.7

Jun 2017

USD mn

quarterly

Jun 2006 - Jun 2017

Updated on Sep 2017
Real Effective Exchange Rate

125.8

Oct 2017

123.7

Sep 2017

93.8

Sep 2001

129.8

Apr 2017

2005=100

monthly

Jul 2001 - Oct 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
Gross National Product

320,902.22

2017

296,012.11

2016

3,803.08

1960

320,902.22

2017

USD mn

yearly

1960 - 2017

Updated on 2017
Gross Savings Rate

6.3

2017

8.7

2016

6.3

2017

17.4

2004

%

yearly

2000 - 2017

Updated on 2017
Labour Force Participation Rate

54.3

2017

54.1

2016

49.2

1995

54.3

2017

%

yearly

1990 - 2017

Updated on 2017
Current Account Balance: % of GDP

-4.1

2017

-1.7

2016

-8.1

2008

4.4

2003

%

yearly

1977 - 2017

Updated on 2017
M2 Growth

13.9

Apr/2017

13.6

Mar/2017

-16.8

Sep/1993

60.8

Sep/1994

%

monthly

Jan/1989 - Apr/2017

Updated on Jun/2017
Reserve Requirement Ratio

5.0

Nov 2017

5.0

Oct 2017

5.0

Nov 2017

9.0

Sep 2008

%

monthly

Jul 2006 - Nov 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
Private Consumption Expenditure

248,781.38

2017

223,165.73

2016

4,952.14

1973

248,781.38

2017

USD mn

yearly

1967 - 2017

Updated on 2017
Coal Production

1.79

2016

1.49

2015

0.70

1981

1.80

2006

TOE mn

yearly

1981 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Investment: % of GDP

15.8

2017

15.6

2016

11.6

1960

21.5

1965

%

yearly

1960 - 2017

Updated on 2017
Foreign Direct Investment: % of GDP

0.9

2017

0.8

2016

0.0

1977

3.4

2007

%

yearly

1977 - 2017

Updated on 2017
Policy Rate

6.25

Nov 2017

6.25

Oct 2017

6.25

Nov 2017

20.00

May 1997

% pa

monthly

Feb 1992 - Nov 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
Gross Fixed Capital Formation

43,096.55

2017

38,920.77

2016

11,599.40

2002

43,096.55

2017

USD mn

yearly

2000 - 2017

Updated on 2017
Forecast: Current Account Balance

-4.87

2016

-2.71

2015

-13.87

2008

4.07

2003

USD bn

yearly

1980 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Forecast: Unemployment Rate

6.33

2022

6.26

2021

3.07

1987

8.27

2003

%

yearly

1983 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Aluminum: Exports

235.70

2016

509.54

2015

7.00

1995

2,762.34

2011

USD th

yearly

1995 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Industrial Production Index Growth

2.5

Sep 2017

8.5

Aug 2017

-19.6

Mar 2009

14.3

Jul 2017

%

monthly

Apr 2008 - Sep 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
Household Expenditure per Capita

594.10

2016

504.16

2014

168.85

2002

594.10

2016

USD

yearly

2002 - 2016

Updated on 2017
External Debt: Short Term

5,242.6

Jun 2017

4,754.8

Mar 2017

25.0

Jun 2007

5,242.6

Jun 2017

USD mn

quarterly

Jun 2006 - Jun 2017

Updated on Sep 2017
Tourism Revenue

906

2015

971

2014

492

1999

1,127

2011

USD mn

yearly

1995 - 2015

Updated on 2017
Employed Persons

57,529,123.00

Jun 2015

56,462,125.00

Mar 2015

53,123,060.00

Mar 2014

57,814,807.00

Dec 2014

Person

quarterly

Mar 2014 - Jun 2015

Updated on Oct 2017
Motor Vehicles Sales Growth

38.6

Oct 2017

13.8

Sep 2017

-60.5

Dec 2008

153.9

Jun 2012

%

monthly

Jul 2006 - Oct 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
Forecast: Consumer Price Index Growth

5.00

2022

5.00

2021

2.86

2016

19.56

2009

%

yearly

1980 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Forecast: Exports of Goods Growth

8.36

2022

9.22

2021

-17.36

1984

27.16

1983

%

yearly

1980 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Imports: Telecommunication Equipment

1,628,629.79

2016

1,268,785.48

2015

87,871.46

1997

2,066,704.42

2006

USD th

yearly

1995 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Imports: Television

22,542.15

2016

39,095.20

2015

1,873.96

1997

51,940.52

2005

USD th

yearly

1995 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Number of Subscriber Mobile

136,489,014.00

2016

125,899,638.00

2015

0.00

1989

136,489,014.00

2016

Person

yearly

1960 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Oil Consumption

566.02

2016

505.30

2015

71.20

1972

566.02

2016

Barrel/Day th

yearly

1965 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Container Port Throughput

2,645,100.00

2016

2,755,600.00

2015

1,938,001.00

2008

2,755,600.00

2015

TEU

yearly

2008 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Liner Shipping Connectivity Index

33.39

2017

35.45

2016

20.18

2004

35.45

2016

2004=100

yearly

2004 - 2017

Updated on 2017
Exports: Medicament

198.82

2016

260.49

2015

5.46

1998

846.93

2005

USD th

yearly

1996 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Imports: Medicament

47,768.65

2016

39,233.56

2015

10,730.62

2002

50,358.99

2014

USD th

yearly

1995 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Coal Consumption

5.39

2016

4.67

2015

0.51

1976

5.99

2008

TOE mn

yearly

1965 - 2016

Updated on 2017
GDP per Capita

1,526.84

2017

1,427.40

2016

82.55

1960

1,526.84

2017

USD

yearly

1960 - 2017

Updated on 2017
Private Consumption: % of GDP

81.8

2017

80.0

2016

68.2

1991

84.7

1975

%

yearly

1967 - 2017

Updated on 2017
Total Deposits

103,477.62

2016

90,552.24

2015

20,810.82

2001

103,477.62

2016

USD mn

yearly

1997 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Imports: ICT Goods

2,155,684.84

2015

2,180,345.43

2014

583,026.80

2003

2,565,505.16

2006

USD th

yearly

2003 - 2015

Updated on 2017
Exports: Telecommunication Equipment

33,244.13

2016

37,242.07

2015

257.70

1998

87,406.67

2006

USD th

yearly

1995 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Exports: Television

36.14

2016

32.57

2015

0.76

2000

135.20

2008

USD th

yearly

1998 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Number of Subscriber Fixed Line

3,067,911.00

2016

3,537,600.00

2015

66,776.00

1960

6,370,860.00

2013

Unit

yearly

1960 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Teledensity: Mobile

71.39

2016

66.92

2015

0.00

1989

73.33

2014

Number

yearly

1960 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Natural Gas Production: OPEC: Marketed Production

42,209.40

2016

41,759.50

2015

18,290.00

1995

44,414.80

2012

Cub m mn

yearly

1995 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Imports: Medicinal and Pharmaceutical Product

149,311.85

2016

142,831.86

2015

10,977.71

1997

149,311.85

2016

USD th

yearly

1995 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Minerals Production

45,626,876.00

2015

45,381,435.00

2014

39,648,839.00

2009

45,631,245.00

2012

Metric Ton

yearly

2009 - 2015

Updated on 2017
National Government Debt

181,002.7

2016

165,774.4

2015

1,232.3

1961

181,002.7

2016

USD mn

yearly

1961 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Monthly Earnings

148

2015

128

2014

97

2009

148

2015

USD

yearly

2008 - 2015

Updated on 2017
Nominal GDP

303,993.4

2017

278,913.5

2016

79,481.6

2001

303,993.4

2017

USD mn

yearly

2000 - 2017

Updated on 2017
Household Income per Capita

649.97

2016

568.75

2014

291.20

2005

649.97

2016

USD

yearly

2005 - 2016

Updated on 2017
Current Account Balance

-3,698.0

Sep 2017

-4,568.0

Jun 2017

-4,568.0

Jun 2017

1,418.0

Sep 2002

USD mn

quarterly

Mar 1976 - Sep 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
Electricity Production

11,818

Jun 2017

12,174

May 2017

2,313

Feb 1989

13,078

Jul 2016

GWh

monthly

Nov 1987 - Jun 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
External Debt: Short Term: % of GDP

1.7

2017

1.6

2016

0.0

2007

1.7

2017

%

yearly

2006 - 2017

Updated on 2017
Motor Vehicles Sales

22,980

Oct 2017

18,931

Sep 2017

4,112

Dec 2008

23,683

Jun 2007

Unit

monthly

Jul 2005 - Oct 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
Foreign Exchange Reserves: Months of Import

3.0

Oct 2017

3.3

Sep 2017

0.5

Dec 1996

10.8

Nov 2003

NA

monthly

Jan 1996 - Oct 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
Foreign Portfolio Investment

-128.00

Sep 2017

-882.00

Jun 2017

-882.00

Jun 2017

2,640.00

Jun 2014

USD mn

quarterly

Sep 2002 - Sep 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
Total Exports Growth

8.7

Oct 2017

9.7

Sep 2017

-19.2

Sep 2015

53.4

May 1991

%

monthly

Dec 1988 - Oct 2017

Updated on Nov 2017
Tourism Revenue Growth

-6.7

2015

3.5

2014

-11.5

1999

23.4

2004

%

yearly

1996 - 2015

Updated on 2017
Nominal GDP Growth

9.48

2017

6.05

2016

6.05

2016

24.08

2009

%

yearly

2001 - 2017

Updated on 2017
Public Consumption Expenditure

36,129.06

2017

31,510.83

2016

392.48

1960

36,129.06

2017

USD mn

yearly

1960 - 2017

Updated on 2017
Money Supply M1

44,841.98

Oct 2017

44,902.74

Sep 2017

9,890.31

Oct 1997

46,414.74

Jun 2017

USD mn

monthly

Jul 1991 - Oct 2017

Updated on Dec 2017
Foreign Exchange Reserves: % of GDP

5.57

2017

6.31

2016

1.66

2001

10.68

2003

%

yearly

2000 - 2017

Updated on 2017
Forecast: Population

217.26

2022

213.11

2021

80.38

1980

217.26

2022

Person mn

yearly

1980 - 2022

Updated on 2017
Motor Vehicle Registered

3,220.00

2015

3,021.07

2014

1,761.61

2005

3,220.00

2015

Unit th

yearly

2005 - 2015

Updated on 2017
Exports: ICT Goods

53,286.61

2015

47,956.60

2014

15,351.64

2003

104,032.49

2006

USD th

yearly

2003 - 2015

Updated on 2017